Type
Crossword
Description

Collision event between a positron and an electron Annihilation
The reduction of energy or number of photons in the x ray beam. ATTENUATION
Means breaking or slowing down BREMSSTRAHLUNG
Another name for classical interactions COHERENT
Main component to have an x-ray tube interaction ELECTRON
Reduce patient dose, radiation safety. FILTRATION
Energy of x-ray photon must be ______ than the energy of the electron shell for compton. GREATERTHAN
Produced 99% of the time within x-ray production HEAT
Primary factor of quality KVP
The primary factor of quanity MASS
Electron interacts with this for pair production and photo disintegration. NUCLEUS
Occurs with extremely high energy photons of 10 MeV or greater PHOTODISTEGRATION
Positive charged beta particle POSITRON
The penetrating power of the x-ray beam. QUALITY
The number of x-ray photons in an x-ray beam QUANTITY
Produced by compton interactions SCATTER

X-ray Interactions Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

X-rays that interact with the whole atom Low energy
X-rays that interact with electrons Moderate energy
X-rays that interact with the Nuclei High energy
Straight out of... Compton
X-rays scattered back in the direction of the incident x-ray beam Backscatter
Produce the dark areas of a radiograph Radiolucent
Anatomical structures with high x-ray absorption characteristics Radiopaque
Differential absorption ___________ as the kVp is reduced increases
The product of absorption and scattering Attenuation
X-ray interactions with energy below approximately 10 keV Coherent
Quantity of matter per unit volume Mass density
Contrast used during UGI Barium
The ejection of a nuclear fragment is part of which interaction Photodisintegration
Which tissue x-ray interaction results in the production of annihilation radiation Pair production
_________ has an anatomic number of 13.8 Bone
Probability of a Compton even is ___________ proportional to the x-ray beam inversely
First name Bob, last name Grossman

Chapter 8 Image Production Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

x-ray photons removed from the x-ray beam as a result of the uptake of their energy by body tissues absorption
reduction in the energy or number of photons in the primary x-ray beam after it interacts with anatomic tissue attenuation
interaction that occurs with low energy x-rays. the incoming photon interacts with the atom, causing it to become excited. the x-ray does not lose energy, but changes direction coherent scattering
scattering that results from the loss of some energy of the incoming photon when it ejects an outer-shell electron from a tissue atom compton effect
the electron ejected from an atom during a scattering event compton electron
an expression of the luminance at the output phosphor divided by the input exposure rate conversion factor
the difference between the x-ray photons that are absorbed photoelectrically versus those that penetrate the body differential absorption
negatively charged plates along the length of the image-intensifier tube that repel the electron stream, focusing it on the small output phosphor electrostatic focusing lenses
the attenuated x-ray beam leaves the patient and is composed of both transmitted and scattered radiation exit radiation
the use of a continuous beam of x-rays to create dynamic images of internal structures that can be viewed on a display monitor fluoroscopy
an expression of the ratio of the number of light photons at the output phosphor to the number of light photons emitted in the input phosphor flux gain
unwanted exposure on the radiographic image that does not provide any diagnostic information fog
during fluoroscopy, the process of creating a brighter visible image image intensification
a device that receives the radiation leaving the patient image receptor
a layer of the image intensifier made of cesium iodide and bonded to the curved surface of the tube itself. absorbs remnant x-ray photon energy and emits light in response input phosphor
the removal of an electron from an atom ionization
the invisible image that exists on the image receptor before it has been processed latent image
the visible radiographic image on the exposed film after processing manifest image
an expression of the degree to which the image is minified from input phosphor to output phosphor minification gain
a layer in the image intensifier that absorbs the electron stream and emits light in response output phosphor
a layer of the image intensifier made of cesium and antimony compounds. these metals emit electrons in response to light stimulus photocathode
the total absorption of the incident photon by ejecting and inner shell electron photoelectric effect
the electron ejected from an atom during a photoelectric interaction photoelectron
the attenuated x-ray beam leaving the patient that is composed of both transmitted and scattered radiation remnant radiation
incoming photons are not absorbed, but instead lose energy during interactions with the atoms composing the tissue scattering
the ejected electron resulting from the compton effect interaction secondary electron
matter per unit volume, or the compactness of the atomic particles composing the anatomic part tissue density
x-ray photons that pass through the body to expose the image receptor transmission
an expression of the ability of an image intensifier tuber to convert x-ray energy into light energy and increase the brightness of the image brightness gain

Radiology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. Quality
The number of x-ray photons in the beam. Quantity
The product of the quantity and quality per unit of area per unit of time of exposure. Intensity
Regulates the temperature of the cathode filament. Milliamperage
The interval of time during which x-rays are produced. Exposure time
The overall darkness or blackness of an image. Density
How sharply dark and light areas differentiated or separated on an image. Contrast
Radiographic image that appears larger than the actual size of the object it represents. Magnification
A radiographic image that varies in the true size and shape of the object being radiographed. Distortion
The capability of the receptor to reproduce the distinct outlines of an object. Sharpness
Peak voltage applied to the x-ray tube that determines the highest energy of x-ray photon. kVp

Chapter 6 X-Ray Production Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The penetrating power of the x-ray beam quality
The total # of x-ray photons in the primary beam quantity
Interaction between nucleus of target atom where electron slows down and changes direction brems
Interaction between filament electron and orbital electron of target atom, which may be removed from orbit creating a vacancy characteristic
Effect caused by outer shell electrons filling inner shell vacancies cascade
Graph of emission spectrum representing the range of energy of brems x-ray production continuous
Graph of emission spectrum representing energy levels of characteristic x-ray production discrete
Necessary thickness of material to reduce beam energy to 1/2 its original intensity, measures quality HVL
Intensity of beam is inversely proportional to the square of distance from the source (an equation) inverse square law
Beam as it is when exiting the tube and exposing the patient primary
Beam remaining after interaction w/ the patient and exiting to expose the IR remnant
Result of 99% of interactions in the anode target heat
Increasing this will increase quantity and quality of x-ray beam kVp
Increasing this increases quantity of beam but has no effect on quality mA

Ch. 8 Image Production Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Those x-ray photons removed from the x-ray beam as a result of the uptake of their energy by body tissues absorption
Reduction in the energy or number of photons in the primary x-ray beam after it interacts with anatomic tissue attenuation
An expression of the ability of an image intensifier tube to convert x-ray energy into light energy and increase the brightness of the image in the process brightness gain
An interaction that occurs with low-energy x-rays, typically below the diagnostic range. the incoming photon interacts with the atom, causing it to become excited. the x-ray does not lose energy,but changes direction coherent scattering
Scattering that results from the loss of some energy of the incoming photon when it ejects an outer-shell electron from a tissue atom compton effect
The electron ejected from an atom during a Compton scattering event compton electron
An expression of luminance at the output phosphor divided by the input exposure rate; its unit of measure is the candela per square meter per milliroentgen per second conversion factor
The difference between the x-ray photons that are absorbed photoelectrically versus those that penetrate the body differential absorption
Negatively charged plates along the length of the image-intensifier tube that repel the electron stream, focusing it on the small output phosphor electrostatic focusing lenses
The attenuated x-ray beam leaves the patient and is composed of both transmitted and scattered radiation; also called remnant radiation exit radiation
The use of continuous beam of x-rays to create dynamic images of internal structures that can be viewed on a display monitor fluoroscopy
An expression of the ratio of the number of light photons at the output phosphor to the number of light photons emitted in the input phosphor;represents the tube's conversion efficiency flux gain
Unwanted exposure on the radiographic image that does not provide any diagnostic information fog
During fluoroscopy, the process of creating a brighter visible image image intensification
a device that receives the radiation leaving the patient image receptor
A layer of the image intensifier made of cesium iodide and bonded to the curved surface of the tube itself. It absorbs the remnant x-ray photon energy and emits light in response input phosphor
Removal of an electron from an atom ionization
The invisible image that exists on the image receptor before it has been processed. latent image
the visible radiographic image on the exposed film after processing manifest image
An expression of the degree to which the image is minified (made smaller) from input phosphor to output phosphor Minification gain
A layer in the image intensifier that absorbs the electron stream and emits light in response. output phosphor
A layer of the image intensifier made of cesium and antimony compounds. these metals emit electrons in response to light stimulus photocathode
In the diagnostic range, the total absorption of the incident photon by ejecting an inner shell electron of a tissue atom photoelectric effect
The electron ejected from an atom during a photoelectric interaction photoelectron
The attenuated x-ray beam leaving the patient that is composed of both transmitted and scattered radiation; also called exit radiation remnant radiation
Incoming photons are not absorbed, but instead lose energy during interactions with the atoms composing the tissue scattering
The ejected electron resulting from compton effect interaction secondary electron

Chapter 38 and 39 Vocabulary Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

radiation protection concept meaning, "As Low as Reasonably Achievable" ALARA
The positive electron in the x-ray tube Anode
basic unit of matter Atom
The negative electrode in the x-ray tube Cathode
x-rays at the center of the beam. Central Ray
difference in degrees of blackness on an image contrast
The portion of the x-ray unit that contains the master switch, indicator light, selection buttons, and the exposure button. control panel
the overall darkness or blackness of an image density
the process of recording images of the teeth and adjacent structures by exposure to x-radiation dental radiography
a filmless method of capturing an image and displaying it by using an image receptor, an electronic signal, and a computer to process and store the image. digital imaging
change in the size of an image caused by incorrect vertical angulation distortion
the amount of energy absorbed by tissues dose (of radiation)
a device used to detect and measure an accumulated dosage of radiation dosimeter
a negatively charged particle in the atom electron
the ability to do work energy
flexible arm that is attached to the x-ray tubehead extension arm
effect of radiation that are passed on to future generations through genetic cells genetic effects
film based or digitally produced recordings of anatomic structures image
a recording medium (or device) for an image, normally film, phosphor storage plate (PSP), or a digital sensor. image receptor
the total energy of the x-ray beam intensity
an electrically charged particle ion
process by which electrons are removed from atoms, causing the harmful effects of radiation in humans. ionization
highest voltage of x-ray tube used during exposure kilovoltage peak
time between exposure to ionizing radiation and the appearance of symptoms latent period
device used to protect the reproductive and blood-forming tissues from scatter radiation lead apron
the proportional enlargement of an image Magnification
anything that occupies space and has form or shape matter
one one-thousandth (1/1000) of an ampere; a unit of measurement used to describe the intensity of an electrical current. milliampere
the blurred or indistinct area that surrounds an image penumbra
a minute (tiny) bundle of pure energy that has no weight or mass photon
the most penetrating beam produced at the target of the anode Primary beam
the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam. quality

Radiology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Contains x-ray tube tubehead
image is projected onto this imagereceptor
where electrons are converted into photons anode
holds film in the mouth receptorholder
concept that everyone should be exposed to minimal radiation ALARA
particles with a negative charge electron
particles with a positive charge proton
protects chest and lap leadapron
goes aroud neck, protects thyroid glad thyroidcollar
consists of exposure button, on/off, controls controlpanel
suspends x-ray tubehead extensionarm
consists of tungsten filament and focusing cup cathode
controls number of electrons produced in x-ray tube milliamperage
how the light and dark areas differ contrast
the darkness or blackness of an image density
controls the energy and wavelength kilovoltage

Radiation Protection Review Crossword #1

Type
Crossword
Description

The greatest source of natural background exposure according to NCRP report #160 Radon gas
Personnel monitoring device that is accurate to 1mrem OSL dosimeter
Interaction that occurs at greater than 1.02 MeV Pair production
Interaction that is responsible for producing contrast on an image Photoelectric
Photon-tissue interaction that does not result in ionization Coherent
Photon tissue interaction that necessitates the use of a grid Compton
Unit used to describe radiation present in a fluoroscopic room Roentgen
Agency that publishes radiation protection standards based on scientific research NCRP
Photon-tissue interaction that does not occur in diagnostic radiology Pair
Process of cell division for germ cells Meiosis
Most radiosensitive cells in the body Lymphocytes
Late somatic effect Carcinogenesis
Limits the area of the patient being irradiated Collimator
Cardinal rules for radiation protection time distance shielding
Dosimeter that is accurate to 10mrem TLD
Device that may be used to measure in-air exposures in a fluoroscopic room Handheld ionization chamber
Another name for a positive beam limitation device Automatic collimation
Most effective protection against radiation exposure for the radiographer Distance

Nuclear Chemistry Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The ability of radiation to pass through matter Penetrating Power
Isotopes of atoms with unstable nuclei Radioisotope
A form of high energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from some materials that are in an excited electron state X-Ray
High energy radiation that accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay Gamma Ray
Radiation that is made up of alpha particles and is deflected toward a negatively charged plate when radiation from a radioactive source is directed between two electrically plates Alpha radiation
Radiation that is made up of beta particles and is deflected toward a positively charged plate when radiation from the radioactive source is directed between two electrically charged plates Beta radiation
A radioactive decay process that occurs when an atom's nucleus draws in a surrounding electron, which combines with a proton to form a neutron, resulting in an x-ray photon being emitted Electron capture
The time required for one-half of a radioisotope's nuclei to decay into its products Half-life
Protons and neutrons Nucleon
A particle that has the same mass as an electron but an opposite charge Positron
A radioactive decay process in which a proton in the nucleus is converted into a neutron and a positron, and then the positron is emitted from the nucleus Positron emission
A series of nuclear reactions that starts with an unstable nucleus and results in the formation of a stable nucleus Radioactive Decay Series
The process that is used to determine the age of an object by measuring the amount of a certain radioisotope remaining in that object Radiochemical dating
A force that acts on subatomic particles that are extremely close together and overcomes electrostatic repulsion among protons Strong Nuclear force
A reaction in which an atom's atomic number is altered Transmutation
A nuclear reactor that is able to produce more fuel than it uses Breeder reactor
The minimum mass of a sample of fissionable material necessary to sustain a nuclear chain reaction Critical mass
The difference in mass between a nucleus and its component nucleons Mass defect
The splitting of a nucleus into smaller, more stable fragments, accompanied by a large release of energy Nuclear Fission
The process of binding smaller atomic nuclei into a single, larger, and more stable nucleus Nuclear fusion
A nuclear fusion reaction Thermonuclear reaction
The process in which nuclei are bombarded with high-velocity charged particles in order to create new elements Induced Transmutation
An element with an atomic number of 93 or greater on the periodic table Transuranium element
Radiation that is energetic enough to ionize matter it collides with Ionizing Radiation
An isotope that emits non-ionizing radiation and is used to signal the presence of an element or specific substance Radiotracer

X-RAY TUBES Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The principle that spreads heat over a greater area of the anode and allows the effective focal spot to be smaller than the actual focal spot LINEFOCUS
How ninety-nine percent of an electrons kinetic energy is converted HEAT
Keeps the electron cloud together before they leave the cathode FOCUSINGCUP
Occurs when no more electrons can be boiled off the filament; limits x-ray tubes to a maximum of 1000 mA SPACECHARGEEFFECT
Area where electrons strike the anode FOCALSPOT
Environment inside the x-ray tube once all air has been removed VACUUM
Graph that allows radiographers to determine the maximum technical factor combination that is safe for the x-ray tube RADIOGRAPHICRATINGCHART
A coil of wire; source of electrons FILAMENT
The product of kVp, mA, and time HEATUNITS
Type of radiation emitted outside the tube housing; must be less than 1 mGy/hr at 1 m from the tube LEAKAGERADIATION
Causes uneven distribution of x-ray intensity between the cathode and anode HEELEFFECT
The positive electrode of an x-ray tube ANODE
The process of boiling off electrons at the filament THERMIONICEMISSION
The negative electrode of an x-ray tube CATHODE
The anode is constructed of this material due to its high melting point TUNGSTEN