What element is considered to be the most important to life?
Process that turns polymers into monomers
A storage polysaccharide of plants, made entirely out of glucose monomers
A structural polysaccharide that is indigestable to most organisms
A biological molecule that does not form polymers
A fat with three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
A lipid that is solid at room temperature
Lipid that has a major part in the cell membrane
What amino acids are linked by
__________ Structure of a protein is its unique structure of amino acids
__________ structure consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain
The loss of a proteins structure
Type of protein that is used to cause of a cell to respond to chemical stimuli
The genetic material used to determine the genetic information an organism inherits from its parents
Single stranded nucleic acid used in the synthesis of proteins
A nucleic acid made up by monomers is called ________
What biomolecule carries genetic information
What biomolecule is used for quick energy
What biomolecule stores long-term energy
What biomolecule makes muscle
Sugars, starches, and cellulose
Fats, oils, wax, cholesterol, cell membrane, and testoserone
DNA and RNA
Cartilage, meats, nuts, beans, feathers, skin, and hair
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
Its simple sugars and its the most basic units of carbohydrates
It consists of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
Which fatty acid can have one or more bonds
Which fatty acid has only single bonds
Formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups
What is a lipid that contains a phosphate group in its molecule
What is a large number of amino-acids that are bonded together in a chain
Is a amino acid a polymer or a monomer
It forms the basic structural unit (base) of nucleic acids
Is DNA or RNA a monomer or polymer
Only biomolecule with nitrogen
Adenine and Guanine
A sequence of monomers is referred to as a
A macromolecule is composed of these single units
These are involved in tertiary structure.
This bond links the backbone in nucleic acids.
This nucleic acid is single stranded.
Composed of C,H, and O in a ratio of 1:2:1
Protein's are very specific in their _____, as it determines their function
This form of lipids are held together by an ester bond.
This "macromolecule" doesn't match the definition perfectly.
Monomer of carbohydrates
DNA -> RNA -> ______
Covalent bonds between amino acids result in this specific type of bond
Nucleic acids are built from chains of
Only some proteins have this type of structure.
If a protein is dropped in strong acid, it will...
This macromolecule is made of amino acids
This lipid is found in cell membranes.
This nitrogenous base is not found in RNA.
Triglycerides have 3 of these, while phospholipids have 2.
The plant equivalent to an animal's glycogen
Bond that joins two or more carbohydrate monomers together
This word can be used to describe a fatty acid found in plants or fish.
Reaction used to create polymers
Steroids are lipids that are composed of ______ rings.
Alpha helixes and beta sheets are created in what level of structure?
are proteins catalysts that speed up the rate of a chemical reactions in the body
are the building blocks/subunits of proteins
are macromolecules made of many monomers joined together
are the building blocks/subunits of nucleic acids
is a polysaccharide made of glucose units hooked together found in plant cell walls
are organic compounds commonly called fats and oils.
are organic compounds used to store and release energy
contains the elements carbon, hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen and is composed of amino acids examples are insulin,hemglobin and enzymes
are the small building blocks of polymers
is a simple one unit sugar such as glucose or fructose having the formula C6H12O6
are the largest carbohydrate molecules, they are polymers composed of many monosaccharides linked together(starch, glycogen, chitin, etc.)
are macromolecules such as DNA and RNA
links amino acids together
is a polysaccharide consisting of highly branched chains of glucose units used as food storage in plants
a polysaccharide with highly branched chains of glucose units, used by animals to store food
The individual repeating units that make a polymer.
The type of reaction that uses water to break a bond.
The type of reaction that yields water and a bond is produced.
Carbohydrates are made of carbon, oxygen and ___________.
The monomer unit in a carbohydrate.
The monomer unit in a protein.
The type of bond that joins monomers in a carbohydrate.
The type of bond that joins monomers in a protein.
The type of bond found in a lipid.
The name of the molecule comprised of glycerol and three fatty acids.
An example of a protein that has a quaternary structure.
Level of protein structure that involves hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions between R-groups on the same polypeptide chain.
Bonds involved in creating the secondary structure of a protein.
The polysaccharide in starch that is branched.
Example of a carbohydrate that is made of B-glucose monomers.
Number of carbon rings in cholesterol.
Building Blocks of Macromolecules
2 Sugar Groups Bonded Together
Most Common Simple Sugar
"many" monomers linked together
Takes the Longest to Break Down
Also Known As Fiber...
Holds Reserve Energy (Storage)
Their Primary Function is to Provide Energy
Differentiates the Different Amino Acids
A Type of Protein that Speeds Up Reactions
A Bond Between Amino Acids
Molecules Changing Shape Because of Hydrogen Bonds Breaking
Taking Away H2O
Fats Found in Plants Are...
Fats Found in Animals Are...
Important For Cell Membranes
The Most Important Steroid For the Body
A Ring Of Fatty Acid
The Process in Which H2O is Added to Break Bonds
Gives Directionality to a Protein
Lipids Can't Dissolve or Are...
Basic Building Blocks of Carbohydrates
A Disaccharide Commonly Known as Table Salt
A Disaccharide Commonly Known as Milk
The Type of Acids Found in Fat
Another Name For Enzymes Not Used in Reactions
Came From Something Living
Fats That Come From Animals Contain 1
Macromolecules are large ___ molecules
Monomers of nucleic acids
A fatty acid that does not have double bonds between carbons
Unsaturated fatty acids have ___ bonds between carbons
Example of a common monosaccharide
Store the most energy
Protein structure held together by hydrogen bonds, froming coils and pleats
Biological Catalyst reducing the amount of activation energy required
One of the four nitrogenous bases
Compound containing carbon
Building block of polymers
Combined together to create carbohydrates
Fatty acids are the building block
Amino acids bonded by peptide bonds
Adds water to separate monomers
A reaction, also known as dehydration synthesis
Consists of a phosphate group, pentose sugar, and a nigrogenous base
Enzymes can ___ when homeostasis isn't maintained
Form (structure) of DNA
A substrate fits into an enzyme at the ___
The building block of proteins
A synonym for Sachharide
A large group of acids that have a decisive R group
A substance that speeds up the chemical reaction
A Polysaccharide made of chains of glucose
Creates the cell membranes wall and structure
Taking away water, normally while binding
Break down proteins with a base or acid
Like a monosaccharide, but there is 2 mono
A biological molecule used to break down food
Source of energy, can be saturated or unsaturated
Sugar from fruit
Most common form of sugar, made from photosynthesis
Another energy source, in high amounts is unhealthy
When a compund break downs because of water
When water doesn't break the compound down
A disaccharide sugar found mostly in dairy
Molecule that can be bound to other identical ones
Simplest form of a carbohydrate made up of one sugar
When a compound contains carbon
A biological chain of amino acids bound together
A lipid that contains a phosphate group
A molecule made up of multiple monomers
A chain of multiple monosachharides
The group of atoms on a acid that identify it
A fat where there is no C=C bonds
A carbohydrate made up of many glucose that is insoluble
A lipid, and the most common for of it is Cholesterol
What most commonly refer to as sugar, table sugar
Fat found mostly in fats, has 1 or more C=C bonds
building blocks for life
hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 2:1 ratio
present in most organic acids
promotes a reaction
carbohydrate found in cell walls
a lipid associated particulary with animal plasma
excessive loss of bottled water
alter the natural qualities of something
a sugar or a carbohydrate, composed of two monosaccharides
used as a catalyst in a specific biochemical reaction
derived from the breakdown of fats through hydrolysis
a hexose sugar found especially in honey and fruit
sugar that serves as the main source of energy for most living things
a statment suggesting an explanation for an observation or an answer
something that can not be dissolved
the major sugar in human and bovine milk
a molecule that may react chemically to another molecule of the same type to form a larger molecule
a simple sugar
any substance contaning a carbon based compound
compound consisting of amino acids
the process by which living cells that contain chlorophyll use light energy to make organic compounds
a compound made up of several repeating units
any of a class of carbohydrates formed by repeating units
an abbreviation far a group where a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached the the rest of the molecule
a fatty acid with all potential hydrgen binding sites filled
potatos, seeds, bulbs, and tubers
a group name for lipids that contain a hydrogenated ring system
used as a sweetening agent
a fat that contains a double bond
used for making explosives and antifreeze
A hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences attraction to some other nearby highly electronegative atom.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits
a molecule that may bind chemically or supramolecularly to other molecules to form a polymer
a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded toget many synthetic organic materials
biological molecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1
called simple sugars
polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
macromolecular biological catalysts
surface on which a plant or animal lives
large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
biologically important organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups,
a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others
amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds
a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi.
an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton.
holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.
having carbon–carbon double or triple bonds and therefore not containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons.
the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
uncommon in nature but became commonly produced industrially from vegetable fats for use in margarine, snack food, packaged baked goods and frying fast food
simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic.
is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated
biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.
organic molecules that serve as the monomers
inorganic chemical and a salt of phosphoric acid.
carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5;
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.