views or opinions
huts where a family lived with their animals and possessions
how people organise themselves
things a person is expected to do
using grass to make a roof
a group of clans
group of people with common male ancestor led by a chief
giving leaders food and other gifts as a kind of tax
bags made from cattle skin
burnt wood that burns very hot
heating and beating iron to make iron objects
heating rock to get metals out of it
making things from metal
plants that people grow in fields for food or other uses
the type of matter that makes up a object
the solid sphere in the center of the earth
the fluid layer of iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core and lies below the mantle of the earth
melted by heating to an extremely high temperature ,as metal or rock
of or realating to meatal
a meatalic element that reacts easily with oxegyn and is very common on earth
a hard metallic element that does not react easily with oxegyn
a place in space where a magnet creates a physical force that can be felt by other magnets or eletrical charges
the part of the earth between the core and crust
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid due to density differences
the part of earth's mantle where convection currents occurs
the outermost layer on earth
a large group of minerals that make up 90% of the earth's rocky crust
the crust and uppermost rigid part of the mantle
a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate
a machine that collects oil
This chemical element has the symbol S and atomic number of 16
India is the largest producer of this mineral
A mineral usually made up of colorless or pale-colored crystals
a component of soil formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material
a fracture in rock containing a deposit of minerals or ore
a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table
A fossil formed when sediment fills the inside or covers the outside of a dead organism
a soft finely stratified sedimentary rock that formed from consolidated mud or clay
also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica
a hard, dark, glasslike volcanic rock formed by the rapid solidification of lava without crystallization
a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate
The word from sweden directly translates to heavy stone
the process of scraping or wearing away
a metamorphic rock that may be foliated or nonfoliated
Made up of sodium chloride and colorless cubic crystals
a group of dark-colored amphibole minerals found in many types of igneous and metamorphic rocks
a mixture of hydrous aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxides, clay minerals, and insoluble materials
extracting a metal from ore by BLANK
a low-grade iron ore consisting largely of chert
a reddish-black mineral consisting of ferric oxide
a name used for a large group of black mica minerals that are commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks
flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons
________ is used for making stainless steel cutlery.
________ is used for making electrical wire.
_______ are valuable substances that are taken from rocks by mining.
________ is used for heating your home.
________ seperates metals from waste rock.
________ is the process where ore is melted together with flux.
_______ minerals are minerals that yield metals when processed.
___________ are minerals that can be burned to produce energy.
Is also called TNT.
The people that work in mines are called ________.
________ is used for making cement.
a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
the smallest unit of an element that has all of the properties of the element; basic building block of matter.
the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of one atom of the element.
the number of protons contained in each nucleus of its atoms of the element.
a horizontal row (left to right) in the periodic table.
a vertical column (up and down) on the periodic table.
a chart that organizes information about all of the known elements according to their atomic number.
describes how likely an element is to form bonds with other elements.
an element or substance that conducts heat and electricity, is malleable and ductile and has low ionization energy and low electronegativity values. Metals
an element that does not conduct electricity or heat and is usually a gas at room temperature. Nonmetals are brittle, have high ionization energies and high electronegativity values. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form anions
group 1 metals on the periodic table that contain 1 valence electron and lose their valence electrons the most easily, making them the most reactive metals.
group 1 metals on the periodic table that contain 2 valence electrons and are the second most reactive metals.
group 3-12 on the periodic table. They have varying valence electrons and do not follow the normal trends of the other metals. They form brightly colored compounds and ions in solution.
group 17 nonmetals on the periodic table that contain 7 valence electrons. They only need to gain 1 valence electron to have a stable octet. They gain valence electrons the most readily, making them the most reactive nonmetals.
group 18 elements on the periodic table that contain 8 valence electrons (He has 2) and a full valence shell making them very stable and inert.
an element that has some properties of a metal and some properties of a nonmetal. The metalloids are found on the boron staircase, there are 7 metalloids: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, and Po.
elements and/or compounds that when put together are unable to react chemically. The noble gases (group 18) elements are inert because of a full valence shell.
the charge of an atoms nucleus resulting from its number of protons
the distance between the nucleus of an atom and it's outermost energy level
the attraction a nucleus has resulting from its number of protons
The use of skills and tools to meet practical needs.
The other term for Paleolithic Era
describes a society of people that includes many families and relatives who have the same language, customs, beliefs and leader
Having no fixed home and moving in search of food
After 25,000 years of freezing, what finally ended?
People of the time were _____________ and gatherers.
When the glaciers melted and the climate changed, __________ returned!
What was the huge family of edible plants that was discovered?
To cut these plants, man used a tool called a _____________.
Two of their stable grains became wheat and ____________.
What type of home was made out of animal skins?
They lived in caves built on the _____________ side of hills.
Living on this side of the hill protected the people from ________.
People lived in groups called _________________.
30-50 ___________________ lived in these groups.
Who was the leader?
The men handled the hunting and ____________.
The women handled the children and the _______________.
People gathered nuts and _________________.
There was no concept of ______________________ property; no one owned their shelter or land.
Hunter and gatherers moved in search of _____________.
Man ate grains, nuts, berries, animals and _____________
One thing clothing was made out of was fishing __________.
Clothing was also made out of animal skins and _________.
What was the triangular blade called?
Fishhooks were made out of bone and later _____________.
Stoned were attached to ____________ to make them more deadly.
Logs were hollowed out to make ____________.
Nets were made out of animals or __________________.
What improved as man's weapons improved?
Cave paintings were a form of ____________.
Cave paintings told about man's daily _______________.
A main discovery of the time were stone tools and ___________.
Man learned how to start and ______________ fire.
Fire was used for ________________, heat and for cooking.
a category of people based on wealth or status in a society
a governor of a province in the Persian Empire
a substance from which other things are made
an administrative district of a larger empire or country
a self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands and settlements
the supply of water to fields using human -made systems
A person skilled at making things by hand
a formal series of acts always performed in the same way; a religious ceremony
a pyramid shaped temple in a Sumerian city-state
a tax paid or goods and services given in return for protection
a belief in many gods
an especially fine and fertile soil
a group of different lands and people governed by one ruler
the earliest form of writing invented by the Sumerians
an extreme lack of crops or food causing widespread hunger
an agreement between nations to fight each other's enemies; a partnership
the sympathy for the beliefs and practices of others
the things, both cultural and technological, left to us from past cultures
a group of people that settle in a new land but keeps ties to its native country
I AM A METAL THAT IS A LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
I AM USED TO BLOW UP BALLOONS
ELEMENTS ARE LISTED ON THE PERIODIC TABLE IN ORDER OF _______ ATOMIC NUMBER
ELEMENTS THAT HAVE BOTH PROPERTIES OF METALS AND NONMETALS ARE CALLED _____
I HAVE 26 PROTONS
I AM A METALLOID USED IN COMPUTER CHIPS
WHAT IS THE TERM THAT REFERS TO THE REPEATING PATTERNS OF CHEMICAL ACTIVITY ON THE PERIODIC TABLE
I AM SOMETIMES USED AS A POISON
ELEMENTS SUCH AS HYDROGEN, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN ARE CALLED ______
THE SCIENTIST THAT ARRANGED THE FIRST PERIODIC TABLE
I AM THE ONLY ELEMENT IN THE HALIDE FAMILY THAT IS A LIQUID
THE FIRST COLUMN OF ELEMENTS IS NAMED
I AM THE MOST ELECTRO NEGATIVE ELEMENT ON THE PERIODIC TABLE
I HAVE THE CAPACITY TO KILL SUPERMAN
I AM NOT REALLY A ALKALI METAL BUT SENSE I HAVE ONLY 1 ELECTRON I BEHAVE LIKE THEM
MY ATOMIC NUMBER IS 79
I AM A METAL WITH 28 ELECTRONS
I AM A SILVERY WHITE METAL USED TO MAKE SALT
I AM A GAS WITH 8 PROTONS AND 8 NEUTRONS
THE SCIENTIST WHO CAME UP WITH ATOMIC THEORY
I HAVE 92 PROTONS AND WAS USED IN MAKING THE ATOMIC BOMB
THE VERTICAL COLUMS ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE CALLED
ELEMENTS TO THE LEFT OF THE STAIR STEP LINE ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE CALLED
THE VERTICAL COLUMNS ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE
I HAVE 92 PROTONS AND WAS USED IN MAKING THE ATOMIC BOMB
A mixture of 2 or more metals
The corrosion of iron
Metals are good conductors of _________
Metals are also good conductors of _________________
A alloy of copper and tin
Property of metal (shiny)
Word to describe metals that can be stretched into wires
Word to describe metals that can be beaten into shape
The most reactive metal
The least reactive metal
________ is necessary for rusting to occur.
________ is also necessary for rusting to occur
_____ prevents air (oxygen) getting into test tube B.
Instruments are often made of the alloy ______
Gas given off when the metals reacted with water and HCl
Coating iron with zinc to prevent rusting
large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers
Sod houses were common in the ________ as settlers moved west
This phrase, which implies divine encouragement for territorial expansion
allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of twenty-one—including unmarried women—to receive a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filing fee.
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there western settlers: The first houses built by __________ were typically made of mud and sod with thatch roofs
Farmers also faced the ever-present threat of _______and farm foreclosure by the banks
primary goal of most western settlers
he period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest?
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture?
Which of the following was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement?
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.?
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement?
were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt and gravel through “panning” or by diverting a stream through a sluice box
provided a quick path from Texas to railroad terminals in Abilene, Wichita, and Dodge City, Kansas, where cowboys would receive their pay.
also known as “devil’s rope”
who brought their families west?
many of the long-trail cattle riders were?
This agreement established distinct tribal borders, essentially codifying the reservation system
. Rather, they either returned to tribal life or fled out of fear of remaining troops, until the ____________ arrived in greater numbers and began to exterminate Indian
___ cooking that uses both dry and moist cooking techniques
To use metal and the radiation of hot air, oil or fat to transfer heat is a ___ cooking technique
When the proteins in food change from a liquid or semi-liquid state to a drier solid state.
moisture that escapes into the air
Cooking technique that uses liquid instead of oil for heat energy needed to cook food
The process of cooking sugar to high temperatures
To coat food with flour or finely ground crumbs
To cook food directly under a primary heat source.
Foods that are cooked completely submerged in heated fat
To quickly brown food at the start of the cooking process
Cooking that takes place after you remove food from heat source
A coating made of eggs and crumbs
To partially Cook food
A combination cooking technique with food items cut into small pieces
To cook food in liquid between 150-185 degrees
To cook food in liquid that is heated between 185-200 degrees F.
To cook foods in a closed environment using vapors
A long slow cooking process that makes tough cuts of meat more tender
To loosen pan drippings with a small amount of liquid