The number of times bigger an image appears compared to the original object, calculated using the formula:
A quantitative unit of length. One micrometre is equal to ×10-6 metre.
A quantitative unit of length. One millimetre is equal to ×10-3 metre.
An organelle that is the site of respiration.
A quantitative unit of length. One nanometre is equal to ×10-9 metre.
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material of the cell and controls the activities of the cell.
A specialised structure found inside a cell.
The diffusion of water molecules from a region of high water concentration to a region of lower water concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
The proportion of the mass of a substance that has changed over a set period, calculated using:
A quantitative unit of length. One picometre is equal to ×10-12 metre.
Loops of DNA found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
A type of cell found in bacteria that does not contain a nucleus.
Enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids.
A large molecule that is synthesised from amino acids.
The speed at which reactants are converted into products.
The smallest distance between two objects that can be distinguished.
Sub-cellular structures that are the site of protein synthesis.
A cell that has a structure which makes it adapted to its function.
A cell that has a structure which makes it adapted to its function.
A specialised male sex cell that is involved in reproduction.
An organelle found in plant cells which stores cell sap and supports the cell.
An organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) from carbon dioxide and water
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells bacteria fungi and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
A structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate and that is important during cell division (contains two centrioles)
The central vacuole is a cellular organelle found in plant cells. It is often the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes.
A narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells that allows connections between them.
A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles
The contents of a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semi-fluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell
A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; in the eukaryotic cells the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the molecules
organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA
A bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins; found in cilia and flagella
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes centrioles/ A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
A thin flexible layer around the cells of all living things; it's job is to separate the cytoplasm from the cell's surroundings
A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
A prokaryotic organism.
Animal, fungi and _________ cells are all eukaryotic cells.
A feature common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Organelle that contains the genetic information in a cell.
Organelle that provides energy for the cell to use.
Adenosine Triphosphate is abbreviated to _____ and is the energy utilized by cells.
Plant organelle that stores wastes, water and other materials.
Structure that enables a cell to move.
Form of genetic material found in cells.
The movement of water from an area of high water concentration to low water concentration.
Active transport is the only transport mechanism that requires _________.
A specific type of diffusion which employs the use of protein channels.
A particle composed of genetic material that is capable of causing illness.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is classed as ‘rough’ due to the presence of ___________.
Structures responsible for packaging materials and exporting them out of the cell.
Organelles responsible for photosynthesis.
Structure common to plant, bacteria and fungi cells.
Basic unit of a chemical element
A group of atoms bonded together
the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells
the material or protoplasm within a living cell
study of cell structure and function
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
(in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane
a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria
A sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of a cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis
a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell
It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum
transport of materials within the cytoplasm.
an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
Theory that states that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.
A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life
The lipid bilayr that forms the outer boundary of the cell
A rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants and most bacteria
A jelly-like substance that hold the cell organelles together
Known as the "skeleton" of the cell; network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps support the cell
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Powerhouse of the cell; produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar (cellular respiration)
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell
An internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
whip-like tails found in one-celled organisms to aid movement
One of several bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytosol of the cell; small organs
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus in the cell
double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most cell's DNA
molecule that allows for transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
monomer that forms DNA
in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
process by which DNA is copied
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides
either of the two sides that make up a double helix of DNA
matches Thymine and Uracil
matches with Cytosine
matches with Guanine
matches with Adenine
matches with Adenine
nitrogenous base, has two circular ring structures, A, G match with a pyrimidine
organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
nitrogenous base, has one circular ring structure, C, T match with purine
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand
carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation
molecule that makes up proteins, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
Polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
a single _ has all of the items necessary to carry out life's activities
one of the structure a cell uses to live , grow and reproduce .
cell that has a central nucleus.
cell that don't have a nucleus.
the cell's power plants break down food molecules to make ATP.
barrier between the inside of a cell and its environment.
the cell of plants and algae have a hard _ _ made of cellulose .
dark spot inside the nucleus that stores the materials , that will be used later to make ribosomes.
organelles at which amino acids are hooked together to make protiens .
usually have ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
special vesicles containing enzymes.
energy converting organelle found in plants and algae cells.
stack of flattered sacs, lipids around the cell and the creation of lysosomes . Sort packages & delivers protein.
fluid inside a cell.
a slender threadlike structure, especially a microscope whiplike that enable many bacteria.
thick protuberances that project from the much larger cell body . Organelle found in eukaryotic.
The basic building blocks of all living things.
A group of similar cells that live and work together
A collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.
An individual life form.
Surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and gives the cell structure and support.
A gel-like substance inside the cell that contains all the cell parts and organelles.
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function or functions.
Molecules that contain all the genetic material and traits for each organism.
Molecules are single stranded nucleic acids composed of nucleotides.
A type of plastid that contains chlorophyll which is where photosynthesis takes place.
An organelle that modifies,sorts,and packs molecules and stores or sends it when needed.
Often known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, this organelle generates energy for the cell through cellular respiration.This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy.
An organelle in both plant and animal cells that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, protection, and growth.
Sacs of enzymes that digest food, water, and waste
Extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER).
Tiny structures bound by a membrane that contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product.
The outermost covering of a cell that protects the cell and gives it shape & support.
Organisms made up of only one cell
Organisms made up of two or more cells
Chemical compound that contains carbon atoms.
Molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic info from one generation to the next. There are two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.
Consisting of RNA and proteins, they are responsible for protein production and assembly.
A substance made entirely of one type of atom.
The smallest unit of a substance that maintains the properties of that substance.
Membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and DNA. Also controls all of the cells activities.
A membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
A structure inside the cell nucleus that rewrites ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins, results in the formation of incomplete ribosomes.
Tubelike structures that aid in cell division and Celiogenesis, are generally are found close to the nucleus
A theory that descibes the basic characteristics of all cells and organisms. It is one if the foundational ideas of modern biology
long, hairlike structures
short, hairlike structure
basic unit of organism
organs working together
group of cells functioning together
types of tissue working together
found in plants for structure
large organelle in most plant cells
organelles used in photosynthesis
rarely found in plants
found in animal cells for cell division
process used by plants to make energy
process used by animals to produce energy
only example of a prokaryote
group of eukaryotes/members of the junk pile kingdom
named for one celled organisms
name for many celled organisms
organelle found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What biomolecule carries genetic information
What biomolecule is used for quick energy
What biomolecule stores long-term energy
What biomolecule makes muscle
Sugars, starches, and cellulose
Fats, oils, wax, cholesterol, cell membrane, and testoserone
DNA and RNA
Cartilage, meats, nuts, beans, feathers, skin, and hair
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
Its simple sugars and its the most basic units of carbohydrates
It consists of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
Which fatty acid can have one or more bonds
Which fatty acid has only single bonds
Formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups
What is a lipid that contains a phosphate group in its molecule
What is a large number of amino-acids that are bonded together in a chain
Is a amino acid a polymer or a monomer
It forms the basic structural unit (base) of nucleic acids
Is DNA or RNA a monomer or polymer
Only biomolecule with nitrogen