first European to make it to India by sea
explorer who is given credit for "discovering" the Americas
his crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe
first European to sail to the southern tip of Africa
the wife of King Ferdinand of Spain. She and her husband sponsored Columbus' voyages
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztec
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Inca
Spanish explorer who claimed Florida in his search for the "Fountain of Youth"
Muslim explorer who led the Ming voyages in Chinese history
large Chinese ships
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds
a labor system in which a person is seen as property
the most economically valuable agricultural product grown in Latin America
name given to the voyage made by many slaves during their forced migration from Africa to the Americas
labor system used by the Inca
Prince of Portugal who sponsored voyages of exploration
famous silver mine in South America
economic philosophy that encouraged countries to accumulate as much wealth as possible by exploiting colonies for resources
dominant religion of Latin America following European settlement
Spanish conqueror of Mexico
took the lead in European exploration
went around the cape and cut across the Indian ocean to the coast of India
a thriving spice trade port
believed he could reach Asia by sailing west instead of east around Africa
Christopher Columbus explored these coastlines
persuaded the king of Spain to finance his voyage to Asia through the western hemisphere
explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England
his letters described the land he saw led to the use of the name America
individuals with firearms, organizational skills, and determination that led to success
landed on the pacific coast of south America with 180 men
the right of landowners to use native Americans as laborers
the exchange of plants and animals between Europe and Asia
a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked to a parent country
a set of principles that dominated society
the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports
large agricultural estates
connected Europe, Asia, and Africa
the middle portion of the triangular trade route
"so great is the corruption that our country is being completely depopulated"
pulled into the slave trade
in the 1500's Portugal came to dominate this land
Spanish and Portuguese officials who had been born in Europe
descendants of Europeans born in Latin America
offspring of Europeans and Native Americans
offspring of Africans and Europeans
In 1592______ sailed the ocean blue.
Conquered the Inca civilization.
Discovered New York State, Canada and Hudson Bay
Fierce sailors who raided towns in their free time
A navigation device which replaced the Astrolabe and the Cross-staff because it could be used on land and sea.
A faster and more efficient cargo ship invented for better sea tavel.
Famous Portuguese leader who created a school for navigational sailing.
A system used for mass-producing books and maps.
Long stories passed down verbally generation to generation.
Northern part of Europe which includes Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Eric The Red's son, viking explorer who discovered Greenland
A very long and sleek ship used by the vikings.
The Incan emperor that Francisco Pizaro captured and murdered.
Famous conquistador who conquered the Aztecs of Mexico.
Number of natives Christopher Columbus took back to Spain to serve as slaves.
Columbus's sons name.
Name of the biggest main ship Columbus sailed with on his most famous voyage.
Name the other two ships in the same voyage in number 17.
A term used by the vikings to describe the savage natives.
What the vikings were called/what they called themselves.
A famous explorer who has a game named after him and found a lot of the Silk Road
An enormous trading route from East Asia to Europe.
Who sailed the ocean in 1492
Who was the first European to reach India by sea
1497, he discover parts of North America
Made the first Europeans contact with the Eastern Coast of Australia
He conquered Mexico
Mapped much of the Southern half of the modern United States
English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century
Organized the Castilian expedition to the East Indies
Best known for crossing the isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513
First demanstrates that Brazil and the West IndIves did not represent Asias eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbian voyages
Sailed around the southernNmost tip of Africa in 1488, reaching the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic
Found the city of Santa Fe and New Mexico in 1610
Explored the Great Lakes region of the United States, Canad, the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico
Claimed the Moreast coast of South America for Portugal
Founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608
First governed of Puerto Rico by appointment of the Spanish crown
Italian explorer of North America in service of King Francis I of France
First resident Bishop of Chiapas
way of thought with prime importance on humans not divine matters
a imagined place thats perfect
male head of a family or tribe
setting up a colony away from origin/home country
the difference of the values of exports and inports for a country; a favorable balance is when there is more value in the exports than the imports.
the action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it
a treaty signed in 1494 by Spain and Portugal, which split the Western lands down a line of demarcation from north to south, giving Spain the all territory west of the line, and Portugal all land east of the line
Helped to usher in the intense period of European naval exploration that dominated the world during the 15th-17th centuries
His exploration led to the discovery of the Americas by European and resulted in future European colonization in the Americas
Marks the beginning of European colonization in the Americas and sets the stage for European dominance of the Native populations
A system of slavery used by the Spanish conquistadors on their American plantations
A buisness formed by a group of investors who pooled their money to invest together
Had their passage to America paid by someone else and in return they signed a contract agreeing to pay off their debt by working for this person.
Came to America to establish their own colony to escape religious persicution in England
The first law in America for freedom of worship for all Christians
Were motivated by the 3 G's (God, Gold, Glory); Conquered many great Native American Civilizations and brought much much of the Americas under Spanish control in the 15th century
Defeted the Aztecs who were ruled by Montezuma, and conquered Mexico; Spanish conquistador
Recieved Hernando Cortes and his men as gods and allowed them to conquer his kingdom; Aztec Emperor
A child of mix race born from a Spainard and an American Indian
First permanent English settlement in America
an instrument formerly used to make astronomical measurements.
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th–17th centuries.
a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C.
a person who draws or produces maps.
was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
a chronic skin disease that is endemic in tropical America.
one of the three Spanish ships used by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus in his first voyage to the West Indies in 1492
Being Columbus' largest ship
was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of the mainland
a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522.
an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
A line between Spanish and Portuguese territory was first defined by Pope Alexander VI (1493) and was later revised by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494).
was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire.
a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
"Place of the prickly pear cactus", capital of the Aztec Empire
He found the pacific ocean
A rope with knotted cords of different lengths and colors
"floating gardens" Aztec way of farming land surrounded by swamps
Incan settlement in the Andes north-west of Cuzco, Peru
Land mass in southern mexico extending north-east into the Gulf of Mexico
City in southern Peru
Civilization of Mesoamerica located in the valley of Mexico
The global exchange of people, goods, technology, ideas, and diseases that began after Christopher Columbus' voyages
Civilization located in South America in the Indies Mts.
Political agreements between people or states to work together
A device used for finding latitude at sea
Books used by Aztecs to record their religion and history
one of the oldest and largest Mayan cities
Ruler of Inca at the time of the spanish conquest
A land between north and south America
He found more of canada up north
the founder of Canada, also a french explorer
Island in the west Indies
Portuguese explorer who traveled around the world
He accidently found the americas
Portuguese explorer who tried to get to India
the science of map making
A device used to find direction while traveling
The mayan word for flat region
Conquistador who conquered the Inca empire
Conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire
Spanish conqueror or soldier in the Americas
The Aztec emperor before Hernan Cortes
Civilization of Mesoamerica located in the yucatan peninsula
Explored the southwestern borderlands. Never did find streets of gold.
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec.
People born in the Americas to parents from Spain. Wealthy and well educated.
Founder of New Mexico colony in 1598.
Explored Florida to the Mississippi River
Indian woman who advised Cortes
Land grants from Spanish government that allowed for Native Americans to provide labor or pay taxes.
One of 4 people who traveled more than 1000 miles through the Southwest.
People at the bottom of the social classes in New Spain.
Catholic father who set up 24 missions in Arizona.
A priest who tried to protect the Indians' civil rights, and, in doing so, encouraged African slave trade.
People of mixed Spanish and Indian background.
Settlements run by Catholic priests and friars. Goal: to convert Indians to Christianity.
People at the top of the social order in New Spain; born in Spain, highest jobs, owned land and mines.
A large estate farmed by many workers.
Searched for fountain of youth in Florida.
Forts where soldiers lived.
the quality of being individual; served as a motivating factor for explorers to seek fame and glory by conquering far away lands
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to Asia
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Known as the Henry the Navigator, gathered experts in science, mapmaking, and shipbuilding whose work led to a fleet of ships that explored the coast of west Africa
to sail around the world
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas
a government tax on imports or exports
Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519.
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean in the late 15th century
Conquered and divided the Inca empire, and was honored by the Spanish king before the Inca killed him.
war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution.
A spanish explorer from central america that inspired the idea of the Panama Canal
a group of people with the same ethnic values controlled by a foreign country
a navigational instrument used by explorers during the Age of Exploration to find the altitude of stars
a small, fast, type of sailing ship that sat high in the water and that was used by most Spanish and Portuguese explorers in the 15th and 16th century
to look over and study an area
A system where encomenderos would offer protection and Catholicism for labor.
He was an encomenderos. In the Mid-1500s, he came to see his encomienda and saw the inhumane treatment and abuse the encomienda system promoted. He started petitioning the King of Spain to institute laws that would protect natives against abusive practices.
It put regulations on inhuman practices.
About 91% of all of them died from diseases that were being brought over to the Americas from Europe.
It was a process of transferring plants, animals, diseases, and people between the Old and New Worlds.
He was given 3 ships (the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria) by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. He arrived at the Bahamas on October 12, 1492. By 1494, he decided to “subjugate by force of arms” the Taino, Arawak, and Carib people.
They married and merged Castile and Aragon unifying Spain and stopping the encroachment of the Moors (Reconquista). They also funded Christopher Columbus’s voyage to America.
Spain went to the Pope because they were scared Portugal would try to take their territory. This treaty, in 1494, divided the world between Spain (having the western hemisphere) and Portugal (having land east however Portugal technically had Brazil). They didn’t ask the native people or anyone else in Europe for that matter.
The night Moctezuma drove Cortes from Tenochtitlan.
In 1680, Pueblos revolt against attacks on their religion, killing priests and destroying Catholic missionaries. Spain lost control of Santa Fe and Mew Mexico for 50 years.
It was a belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good.
In other words, it is corn cultivation, (in 6,000 BCE) domesticated crops and animals, led to civilization, and ended nomadic lifestyle. It was majorly significant to South America.
It was a practice of growing beans, corn, and squash together. It improved diet and also led to large populations.
It was the 1st European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa.
It taught people had to be constantly on defense against temptations. Europeans also wanted to share this with others around the world and became a major reason for exploration.
The 3 main reasons many colonists wanted to come to the New World.
It allowed sailors to sail with or against wind and made it capable for Europeans to now sail south toward Africa.
The bridge that got the earliest Americans between 11,000 and 35,000 years ago from Asia. It was created during the Ice Age.
One of the causes of exploration, He was an Italian adventure who travelled to China, lived there 17 years and wrote a book that described the wealth and products of China.
First European to see Pacific by crossing Panama in 1513 (claiming all land for Spain).
An animal brought from Europe that changed the Indians way of life.
Started in Spain in 1519 with 5 ships, led the 1st successful European circumnavigation of globe in 1522.
From 1513 to 1521, he explored Florida seeking gold and the “fountain of youth” but unfortunately didn’t find either of those.
In 1509, he went to the Caribbean because of wealth and titles. In the 1520s, he failed to conquer the Inca Empire In 1533, he founded Peru. Eight years later, he was killed by a fellow conquistador named Diego de Almagro.
From 1539 to 1542, helped with the Inca defeat and explored in Southeast U.S. seeking for gold. He discovered the Mississippi River. He mistreated the Indians and died of fever and wounds. His people threw his body in the Mississippi River.
In 1519, he entered Aztec capital and discovered their rituals and wealth. He kidnapped Moctezuma, killed 100s of natives, but Spanish ended up running for their lives. He teamed up with other natives to defeat Aztecs. By 1521, he defeated the Aztecs.
Person of mixed European and Indian ancestry.
Their capital city was Tenochtitlan. They had a warrior culture and are well known for their rituals (human sacrifices). They lived in central Mexico.
They were located in Peru and Andes Mountains. They built road networks, terrace farming, and quipu.
They were located in Peru and Andes Mountains. They built road networks, terrace farming, and quipu.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
A conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
A global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
land controlled by another nation
A group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
A group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the early 1600s
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
The buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
The conquistador that conquered the Inca Empire
An Inca Ruler
A colony claimed by English settlers in 1607, named after the English King
The Dutch holding in North America
An explorer who landed in the Bahamas in 1492 when searching for India
The Native American ruler also known as King Philip
The French colonial empire in North America
A Spaniard that landed on the shores of Mexico in 1519