A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Stress
A type of stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
Tension
A type of stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
Compression
A type of stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement.
Shearing
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust,
Normal Fault
The block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault.
Hanging Wall
The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.
Foot Wall
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
Reverse Fault
A type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion.
Strike-Slip Fault
An upward form in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust.
Anticline
A downward form in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust.
Syncline
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
Plateau
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
Plate
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Plate Tectonics
A break in the Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other.
Fault
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
Rift Valley
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Subduction
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Seafloor Spreading
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.
Mid-ocean Ridge
A major belt of volcanoes that rims Pacific Ocean.
Ring of Fire

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