monomers of nucleic acids
base pair with adenine in RNA
single stranded nucleotide
shape of DNA molecule
used x-ray diffraction to determine structure of DNA
enzyme responsible for initiation of transcription: RNA ____
production of polypeptide from mRNA
transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA
64 _____ correspond to 20 different amino acids
ACU in mRNA codes for which amino acid
The 'start transcribing' nucleotide sequence in transcription
when RNA polymerase reaches the ______, transcription stops
regions of RNA that are non-coding
coding regions of RNA that are expressed
location on the ribosome where the initiator tRNA binds
during translation, elongation continues until a ____ reaches the ribosome's A site
modifications to mRNA include adding a cap and ____
special triplet code found on tRNA
the start codon
Type macromolecule know a nucleic acid.
a nucleid acid present in all living cell.
it is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA.
a compoun that ocurrs in guano and fish scales.
in DNA its place taken by thymine.
a pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA
a purine derivatinve, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.
the shape of DNA.
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.
where does the mRNA travel to
a compound consisting of a nucleosides linked to a phosphate group.
process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell.
messenger RNA, is a subtype of RNA.
activated by enzyme that attaches a specific amino acid to the end
the first step of the central dogmainvolves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA in process
once the mRNA is synthesized and processed, it moves to the ribosome.
a sphere- shaped structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
the building blocks of all biological proteins.
set of three bases
built from a large number of amino acids.
carbon compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; used as short term energy storage
broad class of carbon compounds that are insoluble in water; includes fatty acids, triglycerides, steroids, and waxes
carbon compounds composed of one or more chains of amino acids
subunits of proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (and sometimes sulphur)
chains of subunits called nucleotides; RNA and DNA
subunits of nucleic acids; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism
the part of metabolism in which chemical reactions build up larger molecules from smaller ones
the part of metabolism in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones
double stranded double helix, ATCG bases, nucleic acid
to copy DNA
single stranded, AUCG bases, nucleic acid
messenger RNA, copies the DNA code and moves it to the ribosome
The process of making proteins
Happens in the nucleus, making mRNA from DNA
happens at the ribosome mRNA- Amino acids- proteins
amino acids are held together by peptide bonds. A strand of amino acids are polypeptides or protiens
determined by watson and crick; structure of DNA
sub unit of nucleic acid (monomer) made of 5 carbon sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base
purine that pairs with thymine
pyrimidine (single ring) that pairs with adenine
double ring; purine; that pairs with cytosine
single ring base, pyrimidine, that pairs with guanine
DNA strands run in opposite directions
unzips DNA helix
lays down RNA primer for replication
TATA box, regions that encourage transcription
non coding regions that are excised
triplet of mRNA that codes for amino acids for protein synthesis
Is in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Thymine and Uracil.
The monomer of proteins
Pairs with a codon. Found during the translation part of the process.
The rules that state which nitrogen bases pair with each other
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
A nitrogen base in both DNA and RNA. Always paired with 'G'
The molecule that gives you your genetic make up
seals the backbone
Removes RNA primers
Replaces RNA primers with DNA.
pieces of mRNA put together and leave the nucleus.
A nitrogen base in both DNA and RNA. Always paired with 'C'
unzips the DNA by breaking the weak hydrogen bonds.
hold two nitrogen bases together
Pieces of mRNA taken out and left in the nucleus
A change in DNA harmful and helpful.
the messenger RNA. Carries the message to tRBA to get read. All happens in the ribosome.
Adenine, Cytosine,Guanine,Thymine-IN DNA. Adenine Cytosine, Guanine,Uracil-In RNA
the monomer of DNA
The middle os the cell."The brain of the cell"
bond amino acids
Signals RNA polymerase to start here.
Used for EVERYTHING
The monomer for Protein
Monomer for nuclaeic acid
A significant and bassic change
The molecular unit of heredity
Single stranded molecule found in Cytoplasm
Process in which the DNA is copied into RNA by polymerase
Process in which ribosomes create proteins.
Three nucleotides that form a genetic code
Made up of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
Bonding of a large number of amino acids forming a chain
Organelle that produces proteins
Type of base that allows cells to copy information from one generation to another
Physical link between the mRNA and the amino acids sequence of proteins
Essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms
Process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most cell's DNA
molecule that allows for transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
monomer that forms DNA
in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
process by which DNA is copied
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides
either of the two sides that make up a double helix of DNA
matches Thymine and Uracil
matches with Cytosine
matches with Guanine
matches with Adenine
matches with Adenine
nitrogenous base, has two circular ring structures, A, G match with a pyrimidine
organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
nitrogenous base, has one circular ring structure, C, T match with purine
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand
carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation
molecule that makes up proteins, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
Polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
Biology is awesome
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