Type
Crossword
Description

What is a mixture of earth, grass, and water that is baked into bricks in the sun? Adobe
Spanish architecture took root in mexico during the ______________ period. Colonial
What style food was created in Texas after the mix of Mexican and American recipes? Tex-Mex
What type of food included corn, tomatoes, chocolate, peanuts, vanilla, beans,squash, avocados, coconuts, sunflower seeds, and chili peppers? New World
Before the discovery of gold in _____________, there was so little mining in the United states, that America had no mining law. California
Under the American law, water flowing across a field or farm belonged to the ____________ of that land. owner
____________ settlers liked the idea of sharing the gains of marriage between husband and wife. American
Californios knew how to __________ themselves with music , dance, and fiestas. entertain
__________ music greatly influenced country and western music in the Southwest. Mexicano
today, the most widely celebrated Mexicano holiday is El Cinco de Mayo (the _________ of May). fifth
Americans in the Southwest, used _________ sheep instead of the beautiful merina sheep. churro
In California, Mexicans spread churros and ________ to produce sheep with better wool! merino
Methods of___________, became popular, but the "Mexican system" , was very popular in the Southwest. irrigation
___________, helped American settlers create America's fruit basket! Mexicanos
What tool did the Mexicanos introduce to the Americans for scooping gold out of the streams. Batea
Mexicanos discovered ________ while in the Southwest in the early 1800's. Copper
What kind of conditions were the cattle able to adapt to when they moved to the American Southwest. Dry conditions
____________ was essential, so different owner's cattle didn't get mixed up. Branding
American Cowboys learned their ways and customs from the Mexican __________. vaqueros
The cowboys slang word for jail came from the Spanish word ___________. juzgado

Manifest Destiny Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America Manifest Destiny
gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California California Gold Rush
used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States John L Sullivan
William Becknell and five other men began their journey Westward from Franklin, Missouri to New Mexico santa fe trail
traveled on the Santa fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico William Becknell
key to the nation’s health according to Thomas Jefferson Westward Expansion
purchased the territory of Louisiana from the French government Thomas Jefferson
Mexico lost nearly half of its territory, the present American Southwest from Texas to California; U.S. became a continental power. Mexican American War
negotiated Webster-Ashburton Treaty Daniel Webster
route over which settlers traveled to Oregon oregon trail
discovered in California in 1848 gold
Maine vs.Canada Aroostook War
president during Manifest Destinty James k polk
when people from two countries occupy and settle a territory joint occupation
to take control of annex
After the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna is captured and recognizes Texas as independent Lone Star Republic
as a result of the treaty, the U.S. annexed present-day New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California Mexican Cession
to give land over to another country Cession

California Gold Rush Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

He was the first to find gold James Marshall
The news of gold saturated the country, people from near and far traveled in search of tapping into the riches of gold! People left high paying jobs to mine for gold, it eventually became known as…. Gold Fever
The easiest way to discover gold in the sand panning
Name for the people who panned for gold Gold prospectors
Long wooden frames used for searching through large amounts of gravel and soil sluices
What percent of the miners were men 97
These were used for shelter by the minors tents
A disease that spread from the dirty water and living conditions. cholera
This man’s entrepreneurial path started by selling canvas tents to the prospectors. This then led to a hired seamstress to help miners sew knees of pants that had worn out from a hard days work. The canvas was switched to denim. Levi Strauss
How much gold was harvested by 1960 in California 500 million
State where THIS gold rush took place California
What year did the California gold rush take place? 1848
Conflict arose with the _____ when the settlers approached California Native Americans
People who went to California looking for Gold in 1849 FortyNiners
These grew near all the major mining sites. Eventually a bunch of restaurants, hotels, and other places were built in order to accommodate the miners. Boom Towns
Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush Sutters Mill
Steamships and railroads were used as _______ during the gold rush Transportation
What two things were miners forced to create when they arrived in California Laws and government
What could a miner do if he felt mistreated by a group of miners? Call camp meeting
A large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field gold rush
A soft yellow malleable ductile metallic element that California miners were in search for gold
Who was the president of America during the California gold rush? James Polk
The act of searching for precious minerals in the earth mining
A seam-like deposit containing metallic ore Iode
A lump or mass of gold nugget
A descriptive phrase used by a miner who strikes gold paydirt
The first migrants to arrive were those from lands accessible by _____. Boat
The Gold Rush undoubtedly sped up California’s admission to the Union as the ___state. 31
By the end of the decade, California’s population was_______. 380000
California officially became a US state because of what compromise? Compromise of 1850

The Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle bonanza farms
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers sod house
Sod houses were common in the ________ as settlers moved west Midwest
This phrase, which implies divine encouragement for territorial expansion Manifest Destiny
allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of twenty-one—including unmarried women—to receive a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filing fee. Homestead Act
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there western settlers: The first houses built by __________ were typically made of mud and sod with thatch roofs exodusters
Farmers also faced the ever-present threat of _______and farm foreclosure by the banks debt
primary goal of most western settlers homestead farming
he period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884 Fence Cutting War
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest? hostile Indian attacks
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture? Mexicans
Which of the following was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.? gold
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt and gravel through “panning” or by diverting a stream through a sluice box Forty-Niners
provided a quick path from Texas to railroad terminals in Abilene, Wichita, and Dodge City, Kansas, where cowboys would receive their pay. Chisholm Trail
also known as “devil’s rope” barbed wire
who brought their families west? wealthy men
many of the long-trail cattle riders were? African American
This agreement established distinct tribal borders, essentially codifying the reservation system First Treaty of Fort Laramie
. Rather, they either returned to tribal life or fled out of fear of remaining troops, until the ____________ arrived in greater numbers and began to exterminate Indian U.S. Army

Texans Remember the Alamo Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The Son of a bankrupt Misssouri mine owner. Stephen Austin
The Spanish land that borderd the United States Louisiana Territory, was called. Tejas
What was the name of the 4,000 people that ;ived in Texas in 1821 Tejanos
Who was the leader of the 183 volunteeers that defended the Alamo. William Travis
Who was the leader of 25 Tejanos in support of revolt Juan Seguin
This battle lasted 13 days Battle of the Alamo
What was the first adopted name of Texas Lone Star Republic
To join territory to an existing country annex
How many men were captured and executed by Mexicans threehundred
Who was the first president of Texas Sam Houston
How long did the battle of San Jacinto take 18 minutes
When the first American settlers came to Mexico how many were there? Thirtythousand
How many Texans where stationed at the Alamo One Hundred and three
What was the name of the first 299 families in Texas Old Three Hundred
How did the Mexican Government feel the Americans felt. Superior

Manifest Destiny - Westward Expansion Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

Cherokee Nation
Louisiana
The Alamo
Gadsden Purchase
Sacagawea
Missouri River
Northwest Passage
Exploration
Californios
Mountain Men
Missionaries
Pioneer Women
California Gold Rush
Corps of Discovery
Indian Removal Act
Trail of Tears
Irrigation
Mexicanos
Forty-Niners
Mormons
Oregon Trail
Rancho
Legacy
Lewis And Clark
Mexican American War
Manifest Destiny
Annex
Diplomacy
Territory
Andrew Jackson

Chapter 11 Key Terms Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Agents hired by the Mexican government to bring settlers to Texas. empresarios
Cowboys who managed herds of cattle and sheep on California ranches. vaqueros
A 2000-mile trail that allowed settlers to travel west into the Oregon Country. Oregon Trail
An important battle site in the Texas Revolution near San Antonio. Alamo
A treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. Guadalupe Hidalgo
A path leading west from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sante Fe Trail
To settle land all the way to the Pacific Ocean in order to spread democracy. manifest destiny
The U.S. paid $10 million for the southern parts of what are now Arizona and New Mexico. Gadsden Purchase
To search for gold. prospect
Men that used pans or others devices to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock. placer miners
Gold-seeking migrants to California. Forty-niners.

Ch 12 Manifest Destiny Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

the possession and settling of an area by two or more countries joint occupation
a frontiersman living in the mountain wilderness mountain man
a meeting rendezvous
belief that US must expand its boundaries to the Pacific Manifest Destiny
person who leaves a country or region to live elsewhere emigrant
covered wagons used by pioneers in cross-country travel prairie schooners
Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home Tejanos
person who arranged for the settlement of land in Texas in 1800s empresario
an official order decree
to add a territory to one's own territory annex
huge properties for raising livestock set up by Mexican settlers in California rancho
Mexican ranch owner ranchero
to give up by treaty cede
Mexican who was one of the original settlers of California Californio
person who went to California during the 1849 Gold Rush forty-niner
community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population boomtown
people who takes the law into their own hands vigilantes

The Industrial Revolution and Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Memorized the plans of the British spinning machine and brought it to America Samuel Slater
Inventor of the cotton gin Eli Whitney
Built the first American power loom and began textile factories Francis Lowell
This invention helped American industry but also caused an increase in slavery Cotton gin
This inventor made a new plow using an old steel saw John Deere
________________ parts made repairs to machinery much easier Interchangeable
In 1811, this linked the East with the West National Road
Travel over land or water became easier with the _______ engine Steam
The first steam boat was invented by ______ Robert Fulton
Clinton's Ditch was a nickname for this Erie Canal
The Erie Canal brought great growth to this city New York City
The steam locomotive was nicknamed _________ Iron Horse
In 1834 this man made himself president of Mexico Santa Anna
A main reason American settlers wanted to separate from Mexico was the issue of Slavery
The Texas army took over this fort, but was then badly defeated by theMexican Army Alamo
A successful Texas general and first president of the Republic of Texas Sam Houston
Texas became a U.S. state under this president James Polk
The U.S. claimed that the Mexican-American border should be here Rio Grande
This war lasted from 1846-1848 Mexican War
The treaty of ___________ ended the war Guadalupe Hidalgo
Many people traveled this route to the west Oregon Trail
One religious group that moved West to avoid persecution Mormons
Many people moved to Oregon Territory for this Land
The 1948/49 movement west is often called this California Gold Rush
Person to discover gold in California James Marshall
Prices of goods and services are determined by supply and Demand
Women's skills such as ____________ were in high demand Cooking
Mrs. Vander Ploeg's favorite student You

Mexican-American War Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What Mexico considered as the border between Mexico and the U.S. NuecesRiver
What the U.S. considered as the border between Mexico and the U.S Riogrande
Gave the name of the belief that the United States was destined to stretch from "sea to shining sea" JohnOSullivan
The treaty or purchase that was an agreement between the U.S & Mexico in which the U.S agreed to pay $10 million to Mexico for 29,670 square miles GadsdenPurchase
The belief that the expansion of the U.S throughout American continents was both justified and inevitable Manifestdestiny
A group of American settlers in California rebelled against Mexican Government and proclaimed California an idependant republic Bearflagrevolt
The officer or leader who lead the conquest of California Kearny
The battle that saw that the US Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican Army-in the Mexican-American War Buenavista
The historical name in the United States for the region of modern day southwestern United States that mexico ceded to the US in the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 Mexicancession
The treaty that is offically entitled the treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic GuadalupeHidalgo

Manifest Destiny- Chapter 7 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A settler that set up homes and farms on land they did not own. squatter
A settler who traveled by wagon train to the west. overlander
State where Mormons eventually settled. Utah
Spanish settlement that sought to spread the Christian faith and Spanish Culture. mission
Top of the social class system in California. Ranchero
Mexican dictator who led the army against Texas. (2 words) SantaAnna
Man who was given command of Texan army. Houston
Battle at which 300 Texans were taken prisoner and then executed. Goliad
U.S. President during the Mexican-American War. Polk
State that entered the Union at the same time as Texas. Oregon
The first General to lead U.S. forces during the Mexican-American War. Taylor
The treaty that ended the Mexican-American War.(2) GuadalupeHidalgo
Invented a new light weight steel plow. Deere
Country that Mexico gained its independence from. Spain
A person of both Native American and European ancestry. mestizo
Mexican territory that killed their governor. (2) NewMexico
Early Texas settler who the current state capital is named for. Austin
This was protected in the new Texan Constitution. slavery
The deciding battle in Texas' fight for Independence.(2) SanJacinto
His forces secured Santa Fe from Mexico without a fight. Kearny
This ill-fated wagon train had to resort to cannibalism in order to survive. Donner
The U.S. government and Native Americans signed a treaty protecting settlers at Fort _______? Laramie
The former Missions in New Mexico became large ranches raising what animal? Sheep
He was given a large piece of land in California which became the destination for most wagon trains travelling there. Sutter
Texan defenders at this battle hoped to delay the Mexican Army.(2) TheAlamo