hypothesis that states the continents once formed a single landmass
continentaldrift
scientist that proposed continental drift
Wegener
long, undersea mountain chain with steep valley at it's center
midoceanridge
the process which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises to Earth’s surface and solidifies
seafloorspreading
study of alignment of magnetic mineral in rock, as it relates to the reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles
Paleomagnetism
theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere move and change shape
platetectonics
solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
lithosphere
solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere
asthenosphere
he boundary between tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
divergentboundary
the boundary between tectonic plates that are colliding
convergentboundary
he boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other
transformboundary
the process by which Earth’s crust breaks apart
rifting
piece of lithosphere that has a unique geologic history and that may be part of a larger piece of lithosphere
terrane
supercontinent that formed 300 million years ago and that began to break up beginning 250 million years ago
Pangaea
single, large ocean that covered Earth’s surface during the time of Pangaea
Panthalassa
movement or trembling of the ground that is caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks along a fault move
earthquake
the sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeformed shape
elasticrebound
the location where the first motion of an earthquake occurs
focus
point on Earth’s surface directly above an Earthquake’s starting point or focus
epicenter
a region of numerous, closely spaced faults
faultzone
tracing of earthquake motion that is recorded by a seismograph
Seismogram
an instrument that records vibrations in the ground
Seismograph
measure of the strength of an earthquake
magnitude
in Earth science the amount of damage caused by an earthquake
intensity
a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption
tsunami
liquid rock produced under Earth’s surface
magma
any activity that includes the movement of magma toward or onto Earth’s surface
volcanism
magma that flows onto Earth’s surface; the rock that forms when lava cools and solidifies
lava