Type
Crossword
Description

gradual process of change & replacement of some or all species in a community. Ecological Succession
Final and stable community climax community
occurs on a surface with no ecosystem that has existed before. primary succession
the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and begins ecological succession pioneer species
occurs on a surface where an ecosystem existed before secondary succession
secondary succession occurs in ecosystems that have been disturbed or ___________ by animals, humans or by natural processes. disrupted
ecosystems are always changing
occurs on farmland that is abandoned old field succession
what species can live without soil other than lichens bacteria
what species were important to early pioneers in primary succession lichens

Ecological Succession Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A ______ community includes mature trees and a thriving ecosystem CLIMAX
What people in the South call a marsh SWAMP
Annual plants wildflowers
These includes fires, hurricanes, and tornados naturaldisasters
A vegetated field with grasses, flowers, and trees meadow
_______ succession is the series of changes that occur in an area where no ecosystem previously existed primary
_________ succession is the series of changes that occur after a disturbance in an existing ecosystem secondary
Secondary succession differs from primary succession because the area already has ____ soil
Other pioneer species mosses
Area of standing water that is smaller than a lake pond
First organisms to inhabit an area pioneerspecies
Even shallower water that has grasses growing in it and trees growing around it marsh
__________ enables an ecosystem to recover succession
One of the pioneer species lichens
Where primary succession begins barerock
A wetland that has shallow water because of all the deposits of dead plants bog

Energy Transfer Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when a plant uses sunlight to make sugar molecules Photosynthesis
an organism that makes its own food Producer
Gets energy by eating other organism Consumer
Consumers that only eat producers Herbivores
Consumers that only eat other consumers Carnivores
consumers that eat both plants and animals omnivores
Breaks down dead organisms in an ecosystem and returns nutrients to the soil, water, and air Decomposers
the process of breaking down food to yield energy Cellular Respiration
a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism Food Chain
A diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an organism Food web
One of the steps in a food chain or food pyramid Trophic level
A process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water, organism Carbon cycle
The only organisms that can fix atmospheric nitrogen into chemical compounds are a a few species of bacteria Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, plants, animals in an ecosystem Nitrogen cycle
The movement of phosphorus from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Phosphorus Cycle
a gradual process of change and replacement of some or all of the species in an community Ecological Succession
the type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before; such as rocks or sand dunes Primary Succession
the more common type of succession, occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed Secondary Succession
a species the colonizes an uninhabited area and that starts an ecological cycle in which many other species become established Pioneer Species
a final, stable community in equilibrium with the environment Climax Community

Ecological succession Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What is ecological succession
Ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities that live in an ecosystem during a given time period
What are pioneer species? What is the role of pioneer species
Pioneer species are the first species that colonize places where there were previously no other living organisms, such as algae that colonize bare rocks. In general, pioneer species are autotrophs or maintain harmonious ecological interaction with autotrophic organisms(such as autotrophic bacteria, herbaceous plants, lichens
A pioneer community is formed of species able to survive in hostile environments. The presence of these species modifies the microenvironment, generating changes in the abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem in formation. Therefore, they pave the way for other species to establish themselves at the location through the creation of new potential ecological niches
What is the difference between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession
Primary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities starting with the first biological occupation of a place where there were no living organisms previously. For example, the colonization and the following succession of communities on a bare rock is a case of primary ecological succession
Secondary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities starting with the substitution of a community by a new one in a given place. An example of this is the ecological succession of the invasion of plants and animals on an abandoned crop or land
What is the climax stage of an ecological succession
The climax stage is the stage of the ecological succession in which the community of an ecosystem becomes stable and does not undergo significant changes. In the climax community, practically all ecological niches are explored and greater biodiversity is possible. In this stage the biomass, the photosynthesis rate and cellular respiration reach their maximum levels and therefore net primary production (NPP = organic material made by the producers – organic material consumed in the cellular respiration of the producers) approaches zero. During the climax, the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis is practically equal to the oxygen consumed by respiration. (This is one more reason why it is wrong to say that the Amazon Rainforest, an ecosystem at the climax stage, is “the lung” of the earth. Other reasons are: because lungs are not producers of oxygen; and because the algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton are the main producers of the molecular oxygen on the planet

How Ecosystems Work Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

organism that get their energy by eating other organisms Consumer
consumers that get their food by breaking down dead organisms Decomposer
the process of breaking down food to yield energy Cellular Respiration
a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism Food Chain
shows many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem Food Web
each step through which energy is transferred in a food chain Trophic Level
a process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms Carbon Cycle
a process in which nitrogen is cycled between the atmosphere, bacteria, and other organisms Nitrogen Cycle
the movement of phosphorus from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment Phosphorus Cycle
bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
a gradual process of change and replacement of some or all of the species in a community Ecological Succession
the type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before, such as on rocks or sand dunes Primary Succession
the more common type of succession; occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed Secondary Succession
the first organism to colonize any newly available area and begin the process of ecological succession Pioneer Species
a final and stable community Climax Community

Community ecology crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Both organisms benefit from this relationship Mutualism
Lions and hyenas both prey on zebras Interspecific competition
Tapeworms , heart worms , and lice are all examples of Parasitism
An individual of one species eats all or part of an individual of a different species Predation
Relative abundance of each species Species evenness
Community goes through predictable stages resulting in a stable end point Climax community
Close long term relationship between two organisms Symbiosis
Gradual sequential re growth of a community of species in an area Ecological succession
One organism benefits while the other is unaffected Commensalism
Number of species in a community Species richness
Tendency of a community to maintain relatively constant conditions Stability
Species that predominates early in succession Pioneer species
The After the area the more species it has the smaller the area the less species it has Species-area effect
Sequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community Secondary succession
Development of community in an rea that has not previously supported life Primary succession
Events that change communities , remove or destroy organisms from communities , or alter avilibility of resources Disturbances

Ecological Succession Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A gradual process of change and replacement of some or all of the species in a community Ecological Succession
The type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before, such as on rocks or sand dunes Primary succession
The more common type of succession, occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed Secondary succession
The first organisms to colonize any newly available area and begin the process of ecological succession Pioneer species
A final and stable community Climax community
Can release their seeds only after they have been exposed to the intense heat of a fire Jack pine
One type of plant that colonizes land after the land has been burned by fire Fire weed
Occurs when farmland is abandoned Old-field succession
Grow rapidly and produce many seeds to cover large areas Pioneer grasses
A producer that is actually composed of two different species, a fungus and an algae Lichen

principles of ecology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

a symbiotic relationship in which both partners benefit mutualism
a symbiotic relationship that benefits one species while the other species is harmed parasitism
all the living organisms in an enviroment biotic factor
all strategies and adaptions a species uses in its enviroment habitat
any relationship in which two species live closely together symbiosis
organisms that seek out and eat other organisms predators
organisms that are eeaten prey
made up of populations or organisms that live in a common area community
anything that limits an organisms ability to live in a particular enviroment limiting factor
the process of gradual, natural change and species replacement that takes place in the communities of an ecosystem over time succession
a stable community formed after primary or secondary succession climax community
large group of ecosystems that shares the same type of climax and a diverse group of plants biomes

Ecological Succession Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

community
dispertion
pioneer species
climax species
soil
limiting factors
tolerance
secondary succession
primary succession
ecological succession

ECOLOGY Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

non living factors that effect an organism ABIOTICFACTOR
an organism that eats only meat CARNIVORE
the number of people, other living organisms, or crops CARRYINGCAPACITY
a group of interdependent organisms of different species growing or living together in a specified habitat COMMUNITY
an organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material. DECOMPOSER
an animal that feeds on dead organic material DETRITIVORES
The ecological role and space that an organism fills in an ecosystem. ECOLOGICALNICHE
The progressive replacement of one dominant type of species or community by another in an ecosystem until a stable climax community is established. ECOLOGICALSUCCESSION
the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment ECOLOGY
to represent the flow of food energy and the feeding relationships between organisms FOODCHAIN
A graphical model showing the interconnecting food chains in an ecological community FOODWEB
an organism that eats only plants HERBIVORE
Non-native species disrupting and replacing native species INVASIVESPECIES
A factor present in an environment that controls a process, particularly the growth, abundance or distribution of a population of organisms in an ecosystem. LIMITINGFACTORS
both benefits MUTUALISM
an organism that eats plants and animals OMNIVORE
the amount of organisms of the same species in an area POPULATION
one is predator, one is prey PREDATION
an organism that makes its own food PRODUCER
A position in a food chain or Ecological Pyramid occupied by a group of organisms with similar feeding mode. TROPHICLEVEL
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment ECOSYSTEM
the increasing concentration of toxic substances within each successive link in the food chain. BIOTICFACTORS
a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance KEYSTONESPECIES
An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms CONSUMER

Succession Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

First plants that reappear will be crabgrass
In a pioneer community lichens and mosses is Not needed
The weedy community will be replaced by perennial weeds and by shrubs
The changes that take place during any form of succession depend on a variety of environmental factors
Succession begin with the simple plants like lichens and Mosses
Succession will involve the death of individual trees and the growth for New ones
While environmental conditions change even climax communities continue to Evolve
Change in ecological communities is a universal phenomenon
Process of change in the species Structure
The time scale can be Decades
Process by which a ecological community undergoes more or Less
Ecological succession go back to the start of the 19th Century
French naturalist Adolphe Dureau de la malle was the first to make use of the word Succession
In 1859 Henry David Thoreau wrote an address called “The succession of forests trees
developed more formal concept of succession Henry Chandler Cowles
Succession is a process of ecological
Secondary succession is far more common
A charateristic of plants is they devote a great deal of energy
Plants that make up the early stage of succession die
Soil is able to support complex plants
Larger shrubs and small trees gradually take over from early communities
In the last stage of succession taller trees begin to grow
The last stage of ecological succession is known as a climax community
A climax community is outlined that might consist of birch,white spruce, and Balsam fir
Succession is a process of ecological Change
Secondary succession occurs in an area where life once Existed
When pioneer plants die they decompose
The second stage of plants may have grasses,herbs,and small shrubs
The weedy commuinty will be replaced by perennial weeds
Ecologists refer to the last highest stage of ecological Development