a chemical substance produced by a microorganism, which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms; antibiotics sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used in the treatment of infectious diseases.
killing microorganisms or suppressing their multiplication or growth.
effective against viruses.
an antibody formed in response to, and reacting against, an antigenic constituent of the individual's own tissues.
narrowing of a bronchus as a result of smooth muscle contraction, as in asthma.
A thin white opalescent fluid, the first milk secreted at the termination of pregnancy; it differs from the milk secreted later by containing more lactalbumin and lactoprotein; colostrum is also rich in antibodies that confer passive immunity to the newborn.
Ehrlich's term for the thermolabile substance, normally present in serum, that is destructive to certain bacteria and other cells sensitized by a specific complement- fixing antibody.
having destructive action on cells, usually only certain types of cells.
any degenerative disease of the brain.
redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.
the developing young in the uterus, specifically the unborn offspring in the postembryonic period, which in humans is from the third month after fertilization until birth.
any of a class of conjugated proteins consisting of a compound of protein with a carbohydrate group.
deficiency of protein in the blood.
A type of immune system cell that is found in the lining of the nasal passages and eyelids, displays a type of antibody called immunoglobulin type E (IgE) on its cell surface, and participates in the allergic response by releasing histamine from intracellular granules.
the largest of the white blood cells. They have one nucleus and a large amount of grayish-blue cytoplasm. Develop into macrophages and both consume foreign material and alert T cells to its presence.
To undergo or cause to undergo mutation.
denoting a microorganism that does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances.
an organ characteristic of true mammals during pregnancy, joining mother and offspring, providing endocrine secretion and selective exchange of soluble bloodborne substances through apposition of uterine and trophoblastic vascularized parts.
an agent that tends to ward off disease.
A tingling or faintly burning skin sensation that prompts a person to rub or scratch; an itch. It may be a symptom of a disease such as hyperbilirubinemia, an allergic response, or an insect bite.
the process of duplicating or reproducing, as replication of an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand of DNA or RNA.
any member of a large family of RNA viruses that includes the lentiviruses and certain oncoviruses, given this name because they carry reverse transcriptase.
is the surgical removal of the spleen, which is an organ that is part of the lymphatic system.
Pluripotential progenitor cells from which a whole class of cells differentiate.
a ductless gland lying in the upper mediastinum beneath the sternum; it reaches its maximum development during puberty and continues to play an immunologic role throughout life, even though its function declines with age.
the quantity of a substance required to react with or to correspond to a given amount of another substance.