an ancient empire located in W and SW Asia: at its height it extended from Egypt and the Aegean to India; conquered by Alexander the
PERSIA
An ancient Greek city-state and rival of Athens
SPARTA
Capital of Greece in east-central Greece on the plain of Attica, overlooking an arm of the Mediterranean Sea. Named after its patron goddess, Athena
ATHENS
has its origins in the Greek language. It combines two shorter words: 'demos' meaning whole citizen living within a particular city-state and 'kratos' meaning power or rule.
DEMOCEACY
a member of the lower social classes.
PLEBEIANS
an aristocrat or nobleman.
PATRICIANS
is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
PARTHENON
was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases.
PELOPONNESIAN WARS
Sea, the countries bordering it, or their inhabitants
MEDITERRANEAN
Greek Mythology. The patron goddess of Athens, worshiped as the goddess of wisdom, handicrafts, and warfare. She is often allegorized into a personification of wisdom
ATHENA
Capital of Italy, largest city in the country
ROME
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
REPUBLIC
the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by subordinating it to well-defined and established laws.
RULE OF LAW
According to Roman tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables
TWELVE TABLETS
each of the twelve chief disciples of Jesus Christ.
APOSTLES
the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire.
PAX ROMANA
the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices
christianity
of or relating to Greek history, language, and culture from the death of Alexander the Great to the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony by Octavian in 31 BC. During this period Greek culture flourished, spreading through the Mediterranean and into the Near East and Asia and centering on Alexandria in Egypt and Pergamum in Turkey.
HELLANISTIC
a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained power by force.
dictator
The First Jewish Revolt was the result of a long series of clashes in which small groups of Jews offered sporadic resistance to the Romans, who in turn responded with severe countermeasures.
JEWISH REBELLION
elating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India in the 2nd millennium BC, displacing the Dravidian and other aboriginal peoples.
ARYANS
a major religious and cultural tradition of South Asia, developed from Vedic religion.
hinduism
the rebirth of a soul in a new body.
reincarnation
a class structure that is determined by birth. Loosely, it means that in some societies, if your parents are poor, you're going to be poor, too. Same goes for being rich, if you're a glass-half-full person.
caste system
a line of hereditary rulers of a country
dynasty
Any such mandate or blessing. The Chinese philosophical concept of the circumstances under which a ruler is allowed to rule. Good rulers would be allowed to rule with the Mandate of heaven
mandate of heaven
a religion of eastern and central Asia growing out of the teaching of Gautama Buddha that suffering is inherent in life and that one can be liberated from it by mental and moral self-purification.
buddhism
great wall of china
great wall of china