The membrane that covers and protects the central nervous system, forms partitions, contains cerebral fluid, protects blood vessels and encloses the venus sinuses.
The _______________ nervous system serves to stimulate nervous system activity such as accelerating the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, raising the blood pressure, and facilitating a muscle contraction
The outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres are composed of ________matter
The neuroendocrine ________________ is associated with mood, appetite, vomiting, limbic system functions, pain and sleep. The drug Prozac mimics this
In the architecture of the brain there area three basic units based on location. The that includes the upper spinal cord, brain stem and cerebellum is the ___________________
The brain is divided into two ______________
The parietal lobe is known as the primary ______________ area where impulses related to temperature, pain, touch, taste, smell are interpreted
The area of the brain responsible for receiving information from the ears is the ____________ lobe
Damage to the occipital lobes can cause _____________________
Superior, Straight or Cavernous __________
Sensory information received from the outside world is processed; controls voluntary movement & regulates conscious thought & mental activity in the ____________________ hemispheres
In development of the brain, the ______________ is responsible for the evolution of intelligence
The lobe of the brain involved in planning a schedule, imagining the future or reasoning during an argument is the __________lobe
The _____________ is the structure that receives sensory and limbic information and sends this information to the brain
A neuroendocrine associated with concentration, socializing, food-seeking, sexual desire and motor neuron control and associated with Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Lewy Body dementia
Short term memories and converted to long-term memories in the ___________________
The ______________ are chemical messengers in the nervous system
The _________side of the cerebrum specializes in language, calculation and sequential thought processes
The ____________ nervous system is part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, relax the sphincter muscles and allow a muscle to rest
The ___________ is the regions of the embryonic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures
The sixth cranial nerve, responsible for the control of lateral eye movement is the ___________ nerve
An excitatory neurotransmitter that governs muscle contractions and is associated with memory formation and diseases like Alzheimer’s is ______________________
The _____________ ___________ is a set of interconnected nuclei located throughout the brainstem and play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness (2 weeks)
Cranial nerve #1, responsible for smell is called the ______________ nerve
The _____________ ______________ helps to refine movement so it isn’t clumsy or erratic (2 words)
Substance that reduces the weight of the brain, supplies nutrients, transports hormones and prevents head injury (3 word)
The Eleventh cranial nerve which controls the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid and controls swallowing movement is the ____________ nerve
The _______________ functions to control autonomic, emotional, and sexual behavior (regulates visceral motor activity)
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain in mammals. It is composed of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.
This lobe lies between the occipital bone and the parieto-occipital sulcus. It functions to receive and interpret visual signals.
These are the shallow groves in the surface of the cerebrum.
This lobe lies between the temporal bone and the lateral sulcus. It functions in memory, vison, learning, hearing, and emotional behavior.
These structures lie between the frontal bones and the central sulcus, and above the eye orbits. They have motor functions, but also deal with aggression, mood, foresight, motivation, and social judgements.
The spinal or nerve cord is located in the vertebral foramen. It begins at the foramen magnum and ends at the conus medullaris in the lumbar region. It conducts sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to the body
These structures lie between the parietal bones and the central sulcus. They function in integration of sensory information with the exception of vision, hearing, and smell.
These are the thick folds in the surface of the cerebrum.
The second largest part of the brain in mammals and the largest part of the brain in birds. The cerebellum is involved in the regulation of posture and balance, fine motor control of skeletal muscles, and repetitive movements.
This fissure is a deep groove separating the cerebrum into right and left halves.
An endocrine gland directly attached to the hypothalamus. It is divided into anterior and posterior portions. Anterior pituitary produce hormones which regulate other endocrine glands, and directly affects target cells. Posterior pituitary functions to store and release hormones produced by the hypothalamus.
The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left cerebral hemispheres.
The region that regulates the day/night cycle. Secretes the hormone motion melatonin, which effects sleepiness.
The structure that is the major integration system between various organ systems and the nervous system. It coordinates activities of both the nervous and endocrine systems, and between voluntary and autonomic activities. It is attached directly to the pituitary gland.
The part of the brain that contains the nerve tracts and physically joins the two cerebral hemispheres.
This structure functions to integrate all sensory information (with the exception of smell) from the body, and channels it into proper processing regions in the cerebrum.
A structure that processes olfactory information and contains centers for reflex movements involved in eating, such as chewing, licking, and swallowing.
The medulla is at the base of the brain stem. It contains nerve centers for the regulation of heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomiting coughing, sneezing, and hiccoughing.
A region that is also called the “mesencephalon”. It is located above the pons and is the smallest part of the brain stem. The oculomotor, trochlear, and trigeminal cranial nerves originate in this area.
A structure that is located on the bottom-center of the brain where the two optic nerve cross.
The pons is located just above the medulla, on the brain stem. It works with the medulla to control respiration and helps regulate sleep. It is the origin for the trigeminal, abducens, facial, and vestibulocochlear cranial nerves
These bulbs are located just below the frontal lobes. They function in the sense of smell.
nerve impulse, membrane potential of an active neuron
in a neuron, the single process that extends from the axon hillock and transmits impulses away from the cell body
division of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord
branching or tree-like nerve cell process that receives input from other neurons and transmits impulses toward the cell body (or toward the axon in unipolar neurons)
nonexciteable supporting cells of nervous tissue; formerly called neruoglia
difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of the plasma membrane
lipoprotein substance in the myelin sheath around many nerve fibers that contribute to high speed conductivity of impulses
bundle nerve fibers, plus surrounding connective tissue, located outside the brain and spinal cord
nerve cell, including its processes (axons and dendrites)
nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
impulse conduction route to and from the central nervous system; smallest portion of nervous system that can receive a stimulus and generate a response
membrane-to-membrane junction between a neuron and another neuron, effector cell, or sensory cell; function to propagate action potential
part of the brain containing the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
second largest part of the human brain; plays an essential role in the production of normal movements
plasma-like fluid that fills the subarachnoid space in the brain and spinal cord and in the cerebral ventricles
largest and uppermost part of the human brain that controls consciousness, memory, sensations, emotions, and voluntary movements
“between” brain; parts of the brain between cerebral hemispheres and the mesencephalon, or midbrain
graphic representation of voltage changes in the brain tissue used to evaluate nerve tissue function
important autonomic and neuroendocrine control center located inferior to the thalamus in the brain
parts of the brain involved in emotions and sense of smell; plays key role in coupling sensory inputs to short- and long-term memory; consists of the hippocampus, the hypothalamus and several other structures
fluid-containing membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
located in the medulla where bits of gray and white matter mix intricately, this structure is involved in regulating input from sensory neurons, arousal, and motor control
mass of gray matter located in diencephalon just above the hypothalamus; helps produce sensations, associates sensations with emotions, and plays a part in the arousal mechanism
a cavity, such as the large, fluid-filled spaces within the brain or the chambers of the heart
An electrochemical pulse that moves long the membrane of a neuron
The protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord
The brain region that receives general sensations and relays impulses to a parietal lobe
The region of the brain that controls involuntary activities
Part of the neuron that receives nerve impulses and transmits them toward the cell body
The series of neurons that produces a single reaction in response to a stimulus
The white fatty membrane that protects the neuron
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
The part of the neuron with the greatest diameter; contains the nucleus
The junction between the axon and dendrite
The part of the brain containing motor and sensory centers: controls voluntary movement
Part of the brain that monitors and adjusts body activities
The gray matter of the cerebrum
Part of the brain; Relay center between spinal cord and brain; reflex center
A rounded portion of the lower brain that relays information from one side of th brain to the other
The nervous tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral body parts
The functional unit of the nervous system. The cell that receives and distributes nerve impulses.
The chemicals responsible for extending the nerve impulse from one cell to the next
Cells that transmit impulses
Short branch extensions that carry impulses towards the cell body
Long fiber that carries impulses away from cell body
Contained in sacs in axon terminals; released to cause stimulus in the next cell; chemicals
Relays messages, processes information, and analyzes information.
Connects brain to the spinal cord; Controls involuntary actions.
Controls reflexes; Carries signals from brain to the body
Second largest part of the brain; Located at the back of the skull; Coordinates balance and movement.
Largest part of the brain; Responsible for voluntary and educated actions; Located in 2 different lobes.
Fatty insulated sheath that surrounds all but the smallest nerve fibers.
a bundle of fibers running to organs and tissues in the body.
A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process for storage memories of facts and events.
Small structure helps keep the body's internal environent in a steady state. Controls the pituitary gland.
Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Two lima bean sized neural clusters; linked to emtion
The little brain at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory.
A nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and palys a role in controlling arousal.
The brain's sensory control center located on the top of the brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.
Base of the brainstem; controls heatbeat is responsible for automatic survival
Amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface.
Brian imaging technique that measures magnetic field's from the brain's natural electrical activity.
A visual display of brain activity that detects radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Tissue destruction. Naturally of experimentally cause destruction of brain tissue
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem, functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neuron extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
neuron extensions that pass messages to other neurons or cells
a nerve impulse
neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
two lima-beam-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements an din making plans and judgments
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body positions
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes areas that receive information from the ears
false sensory experiences, such as hearing something in the absence of an external auditory stimulus
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
condition in which the brain's two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the fibers connecting them
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed, but other body systems are active
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
recording apparatus, using electrodes placed on the scalp, that records waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
a view of brain activity showing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. These scans show brain tissue
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hr cycle
connects the two hemispheres
memory and reasoning
helps with processing sensation and forming it into a perception
plays a key role in understanding language
processes visual information
covered by the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes in the lateral sulcus
located above the midbrain and includes the thalamus
the sensory switchboard where most sensory impulses are sent
links the nervous system to the endocrine system
helps with growth and controls the release of hormones
the base of the brain that connects to the spinal cord
the area of the brain that controls emotional responses and expressions
a region of the brain in between the diencephalon and the pons that has a lot of reflex centers
helps maintain breathing
controls heartbeat, breathing, and the constriction of blood vessels
helps arouse the cerebral cortex into wakefulness
helps with the body's coordination and maintaining posture
controls unconscious activities like breathing
controls conscious activities pertaining to the movement of the skeletal muscles
The PNS that controls voluntary movement
Group of axons that connects the two brain hemispheres
Medial most structure of the brain
Rostral most portion of the brain, directly dorsal to the eye sockets.
Portion of the thalamus that project information to the primary visual cortex
Cross section for optic nerves in the brain
Structure that signals the initiation of neurulation
Fiber bundle that carries information from the hippocampus
A coronal plane that splits the frontal and parietal lobes
Structure connecting the third and fourth ventricles
Name for the fibers that convey sensory neurons to the brain
Relays sensory info to proper portion of the brain
Visual field attention area
Motor related structure located on ventral side of the brainstem
Layers that protect the brain and spinal cord
Group of structures connecting the cerebellum to the midbrain
Section of brainstem involved in processing auditory information
Crossover area for upper motor neurons
Positive regulator of the hypothalamus
Learning and memory center
Structure derived from mesoderm that creates bones and muscles.
Directly caudal from central sulcus
GABA filled structure that is stimulated by the Primary motor cortex
Structures connected to the fornix
Fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the hypothalamus
Connective structure were portal system begins
Term for "crossover"
Portion of the brain that contains tons of nerve fibers, discovered by
Structure that controls speech
The upper part of the brain
The lower part of the brain
Connects the brain to the spinal cord
the cerebrum is divided into two
The two brain hemispheres communicate through a mass of nerve fibers called
Much of the brain's gray matter is located in the
The rear portion of the frontal lobes is called the
The sense of vision is interpreted by the
Damage to the cerebral motor area is known as
The lowest part of the brain stem is the
Latin for "bridge"
Latin word meaning "small net"
Acts as the switchboard for the brain
The control unit for your body's automatic systems
Helps generate emotions and processes emotional memories
A person's actions can be completely explained as responsises to particular stimuli
A number of complex brain structures lie clusted around the brain stem
System that consists of nerves, brain and spinal cord
helps movement of the body, maintaining posture, and circulating blood throughout the body
system that contains voluntary and involuntary muscles
this system starts in the mouth
the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body
disposing of the body's waste
brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide
system that protects major internal organs and provides overall support
system that transmits signals from the body to the brain
this is also known as the urinary system
includes bone, cartilages, ligaments
skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles
Breaks down food
skin, hair, regulates temperature
esophagus, stomach, intestines