Compound used by cells to store and release energy (ATP)
Adenosine triphosphate
Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Photosynthesis
Light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
Pigment
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Chlorophyll
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Chloroplast
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light-dependent reaction
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar (Calvin Cycle)
Light-independent reaction
first set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
glycolysis
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Cellular Respiration
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Fermenation
process that does not require oxygen
Anaerobic
process that requires oxygen
aerobic
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Krebs cycle