electron transport chain
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starches
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
the steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process
a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
the second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
granum (grana) a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. These reactions are also called the Calvin Cycle
is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
a compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis.
An electron carrier molecule.
A series of anaerobic chemical reactions in the cytoplasm that breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid.
Chemical reactions that require the process of oxygen.
The molecule that is formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group for ATP.
Series of reactions during the light independent phase of photosynthesis.
Chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen.
Molecule in cells that stores energy.
Reaction that takes place in the the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-dependent reactions
Process by which autotrophs trap energy from sunlight.
A molecule that absorbs specific wavelengths of sunlight.
Chemical process where mitochondria breaks down food molecules to make ATP.
Anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
Absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
The first step of Cellular Respiration where glucose is broken in half and 2 ATP energy units are released.
Short for Adenosine Triphosphate. It is the energy that is released when the mitochondrion breaks down the sugars you have eaten.
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
The small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer.
An organelle inside a plant cell only where photosynthesis takes place
An organism that must eat plants or other animals for food
An organelle inside an animal AND plant cell where cellular respiration takes place
The process by which plants use carbon dioxide + energy from the sun to create sugars and oxgen
Produces 36 ATP energy units for each sugar molecule broken up
The process that takes place inside all eukaryotic cells (both plants and animals) that breaks down sugars to produce energy in the form of ATP
Cellular respiration that takes place when there is oxygen
Cellular respiration that takes place where there is NO oxygen
Sugars produced by photosynthesis
Primary light absorbing pigment in autotrophs
An electron carrier only found in the Krebs Cycle
An electron carrier that is formed during glycolysis
A substance that gives another substance its color
Process that uses sunlight to make organic compounds
organisms that produce their own food, don't need to eat
Organisms that must consume organic molecules
Process that converts pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water, and releases 2 ATP
Occurs in mitochondria and chloroplasts, produces large quantities of ATP
oranges and yellows
breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, gains 2 ATP for the cell
Carbon dioxide fixation occurs during this process
Does not require oxygen
breakdown of sugars without oxygen, produces alcohol or lactate
found in chloroplast, contains pigments, looks like pancakes
Able to make energy from Light Energy (Plants)
Able to make energy from Chemicals (Bacteria)
Obtains energy from food; Cannot make energy (Animals & Humans)
The Organelle found in plants and algae cells where Photosynthesis takes place
Stacks of Thylakoids
Flattened discs where Light-Dependent Reactions occur
The Solution/Space inside the Thylakoid where Light-Independent Reactions occur
Cannot occur without Oxygen; requires Oxygen
Ca occur with or without Oxygen present; Does NOT require Oxygen
A green pigment found in most plant cells; gives plants there green color, reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form Carbohydrates; located in Chloroplast
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce Carbohydrates and Oxygen
The process by which cells obtain energy from Carbohydrates; Atmospheric Oxygen combines with Glucose to form Water and Carbon Dioxide
The 1st step of Photosynthesis; Light Energy is captured and stored as NADPH and Oxygen gas is released; requires light
The 2nd step of Photosynthesis; Calvin Cycle forms Organic compounds using the stored energy(Glucose)
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to Pyruvic Acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP; 1st Step of Cellular Respiration
A series of biochemical reactions that convert Pyruvic Acid into Carbon Dioxide and Water; it is the major pathway of oxidation for many organisms and it releases energy; 2nd Step of Cellular Respiration
Known as ETC, it converts the most energy into ATP for cells; domino effect; Final Step in Cellular Respiration
Respiration without oxygen
Makes glucose from sunlight
Too much exercise and not enough oxygen can cause
Step on in cellular respiration-split glucose
Fermentation with yeast makes
The opposition of photosynthesis
Place where cells perform glycolysis
Organelle found in all organisms that is the site of aerobic cellular respiration
takes glycolysis to produce carbon dioxide and high energy electrons
type of respiration without oxygen used by organisms such as yeast
The starting material in a chemical reaction
Absorbs light energy, pigment that it's green color
Energy used by plants to produce their own food
tiny holes in the leaves where carbon dioxide and oxygen enter and exit
Ability to do work
Obtain energy from the foods they consume
Organisms that use light energy from the sun to produce food
Chloroplasts contain sac like structures called
Light collecting units of the chloroplast
Carry the high energy electrons
protein that uses energy from H+to form ATP and ADP
Thylakoids are stacked=
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
CITRIC ACID CYCLE
Process that uses chemical energy, instead of light energy, to make the energy storing molecule of glucose
Sequence of biochemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes, that occur in all living cells and concerned mainly with the exchange of energy
A natural compound that gives color to plants and animals
The mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments absorb energy from sunlight
The process of converting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into carbohydrates, like glucose, by photosynthesis
Anaerobic respiration performed by bacteria and muscle cells
Plant pigment responsible for red, orange, and yellow colors
A lower energy molecule that can be converted to ATP by adding a phosphate group
Any pigment in plant leaves other than chlorophyll
Movement of hydrogen ions across a semipermeable membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis to generate ATP
Process that does not require oxygen to occur
Membrane bound organelle where cellular respiration takes place
Membrane bound organelle where photosynthesis occurs
Another name for the Krebs cycle
Pores on the underside of a leaf
Enzyme that adds a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP
The molecule glucose is converted to during glycolysis
Anaerobic stage during cellular respiration that occurs in the cytoplasm
Third stage of cellular respiration when most ATP molecules are produced
Site where oxygen in produced in the chloroplast
Second phase of photosynthesis
Reactions that convert light energy into chemical energy
Chemical reactions in which glucose is converted into ATP in the mitochondria
Form of cellular energy synthesized in the mitochondria
Area of the chloroplast where the Calvin Cycle takes place
Anaerobic respiration performed by yeast cells
Cellular respiration that requires oxygen
Second stage of cellular respiration that requires only 2 ATP
First phase of photosynthesis that occurs in the thylakoid membranes
Another name for anaerobic respiration