a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water
Photosynthesis
An organic compound that gives a characteristic color to plant or animal tissues and is involved in vital processes
Pigment
a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis
Chlorophyll
a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
Chloroplast
The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments (such as chlorophyll) to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
Light-dependent reaction
chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose
Light-independent reaction
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products
Cellular respiration
the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of hea
Fermentation
relating to, involving, or requiring an absence of free oxygen
Anaerobic
Not requiring, or capable of occurring, in the absence of air or free oxygen
Aerobic
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed
Krebs cycle