Type
Crossword
Description

What is general name given to a microorganism that causes disease Pathogen
Name a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies lymphocyte
Name a type of white blood cell that can engulf pathogens phagocyte
What is the name given to proteins found on the surface of pathogens that are identified as being foreign by the immune system antigens
What name is given to a molecule produced in response to an antigen antibody
what word describes the relationship between the shape of an antibody and an antigen complementary
What type of lymphocyte is important in a secondary immune response memory
what two words describe the protection given to a population when sufficient numbers of the population have bee vaccinated against a pathogen (4, 8)t herdimmunity
What name is given to microscopic acellular structures that can replicate inside host cells virus
Name the type of life cycle of a virus that results in the replicating virus bursting the host cell lytic
What term describes antibodies that are used in diagnosing disease or are used in pregnancy tests monoclonal
What animal is used to produce monoclonal antibodies on a large scale mouse
What type of cells are spleen cells fused with when producing monoclonal antibodies myeloma

Immune System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What is immunity achieved when the body makes antibodies against antigen? active immunity
Antibodies produced by plasma cells in response to antigenic stimulation? immunoglobulins
This is a group of cells that come from a single cell; genetically identical. clone
It is the ability to resist and overcome injury by pathogens or antigenic substances. immunity
What is a macromolecule that elicits an immune response by lymphocytes? antigen
It is an enlarged monocyte that eats foreign material. macrophages
A short-acting immunity achieved when the person is given antibodies mad by another. passive immunity
group of proteins in the blood that are concerned with phagocytosis compliment proteins
It is antigens that have been altered in order to produce active immunity without causing the disease. vaccine
What are substances that react with a specific antigen? antibodies
What is the eating of pathogens or cellular debris? phagocytes
A foreign substance or antigen that stimulates an allergic reaction? allergen
It is immunity against one’s own tissue. autoimmunity
The body’s response to infection or injury. inflammation
Lymphocytes that engage in antibody-mediated immunity. B Lymphocytes
It is a group of proteins in the blood that are concerned with phagocytosis. complement proteins
They are substances produced by a virus-infected cell. interferons
A type of lymphocyte that engages in cell-mediated immunity. T Lymphocytes

The Immune System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The body's first line of defense against pathogens. Skin
A cell that identifies pathogens and distinguishes different pathogens from each other. TCell
The molecules that the immune system recongnizes as either part of the body or coming from outside the body. Antigens
Lymphocytes that produce proteins that help destroy pathogens. BCell
The proteins produced by B Cells. Antibodies
The body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease. Immunity
The process by which harmless antigens are purposefully introduced to a person's body to produce active immunity. Vaccination
A chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming cells. Antibiotic
A disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance. Allergy
A disorder in which respiratory passages narrow significantly. Asthma
An imbalance or misuse of insulin in the body. Diabetes

The Immune System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

while many medical advances have been made to safeguard against infection by. pathogens
pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses are caused by. infectious diseases
To function properly, this must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens. immune system
These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood is. innate immune response
a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful. inflammation
less technical term for leukocyte. white blood cells
a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing. phagocytes
a lymphocyte not processed by the thymus gland. b cells
a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting. antibodies
a lymphocyte of a type produced or processed by the thymus. t cells
the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system. active immunity
These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria. a i r

The Lymphatic system and Immunity Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What is an enlargement of the lymph nodes Lymphadenitis
Mass of lymphatic tissue Spleen
Produce lymphocytes and filter bacteria Tonsils
I am one example of natural immunity Skin
Pathogens or foreign matter Antigen
What way do lymph vessels go? Parallel
In the spleen there are large amounts of what stored RBC
Thymus gland produces what lymphocytes? T-lymphocytes
Immunity is the body ability to ____ pathogens and foregin materials Resist
The spleen forms RBC in the ____ Embryo
The ___ the spleen is located at is in the upper left abdomen Area
What are our soldiers of defense Antibodies
ADI is caused by ____ virus HIV
Who is a lymphatic organs and an endocrine gland Thymus gland

Microbiology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The study of microorganisms microbiology
An organism that cause disease pathogen
A food made with the help of bacteria yoghurt
microorganisms used in the brewing and baking industry yeast
A harmless dose of a disease causing microbe vaccination
A protein produced by white blood cells in response to an antigen Antibody
Resistant to a disease immune
a human disease caused by a fungus Athletes foot
A fungal disease which caused the Great Irish Famine Blight
An organism that lives in or on another living thing Parasite
A chemical which kills bacteria and fungi but not viruses Antibiotic
Organisms which feed on the dead remains of living things decomposers
The use of living things to make a product Biotechnology
A term used to describe things which can only be seen by a microscope Microscopic
Composed of only one cell Unicellular
Microorganisms are found here Everywhere
Free from microorganisms Sterile
A condition needed for the growth of microbes Water
A substance which contains food needed for the growth of microbes Nutrient Agar
How bacteria reproduce Binary Fission

Chapter 21 Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Are caused by organisms or viruses that enter and multiply within the human body Infectious Diseases
An organism that is so small it can only be seen through a microscope Microorganism
A microorganism or virus that causes disease Pathogen
Simple, single-celled microorganisms Bacteria
A poison given off by some bacteria that can injure cells Toxin
The smallest type of pathogen Virus
Organisms such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms that grow best in warm, dark, moist areas Fungi
A large and complex single-celled organism Protozoan
The protective lining that covers any opening into the body Mucous Membrane
The body's general response to all kinds of injuries Inflammation
A type of white blood cell that engulfs and destroys pathogens Phagocyte
The body's most sophisticated defense against pathogens Immune System
A type of white blood cell that carries out functions of the immune system Lymphocyte
The body's ability to destroy a pathogen that it has previously encountered before the pathogen is able to cause disease Immunity
A type of lymphocyte that helps the immune system destroy pathogens T Cell
A lymphocyte that produces antibodies B Cell
A protein that attaches to the surface of pathogens Antibody
A network of vessels that collect fluid from body tissues Lymphatic System
An injection that causes the body to become immune to a disease Immunization
A substance containing small amounts of dead or modified pathogens Vaccine
A drug that inhibits or kills bacteria Antibiotic
An unusually high occurrence of a disease Epidemic
An infectious disease that has become more common within the last 20 years Emerging Disease

Immune System Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A substance the body cannot recognize, usually on living Antigen
A quick and general immune response you're born with IIR
A highly specific attack on a antigen or pathogen by the creation of antibodies AIR
A type of WBC that fights infection by swallowing pathogens Phagocyte
The movement of B cells to produce antibodies Mobilization
A sexually transmitted disease HIV
Swelling and redness at the site of infection Inflammation
Chemical released by the body in response to an injury or allergen Histamine
Specific particles created by the immune system to destroy specific disease causing invaders Antibodies
The action or process of recognizing foreign bodies Recognition
Any substance that causes an allergic reaction Allergen
A special version of auntie Jen that provides immunity against disease Vaccine
A disease that can be spread by contact with infected people animals water or food Infectious disease
Physical contact touching and infected individual including sexual contact direct contact
A severe allergic reaction that can result in swelling breathing difficulty and sometimes does Anaphylactic shock
The action or process of anti-bodies destroying pathogens Disposal
Third and order or level Tertiary
Blood cells that fight infection and prevent the growth of cancer White blood cells
Specialized white blood cells that fights diseases by talking antigens directly Killer tcells
Specialized White blood cells that fight diseases by activating the B-cells Helper t cells

viruses Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

An infectionious particle made only out of a strand of DNA or RNA is known as what? virus
What produces disease? pathogen
What is an infectious particle that causes diseases in plants? viroid
What is an infectious particle made out of only proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly? prion
What is the protein shell around viruses called? capsid
What are viruses that infect bacteria? bacteriophages
What is the phage DNA inserted into the host cell’s DNA? prophage
What is the phage that combines its DNA with the host cells DNA? lysogenic infection
What is an infection pathway in which the host cell bursts? lytic infection
What is the most familiar cold? common cold
What is a rapid outbreak of an infection? epidemic
What substance stimulates the bodys immune response? vaccine
What is a virus that contains RNA and uses an enzyme to make a copy of DNA? retrovirus
What is a small piece of genetic material that can replicate seperatley from the main chromosome? plasmid
What is a long rope like structure outside of a cell that is used for movement? flagellum
What is it called when prokaryotes exchange parts of their chromosomes? conjugation
What is a specialized cell with a protected wall? endospore
What is the process that uses microbes to break down pollutants? bioremediation
What is a poison released by organisms? toxin
What is a chemical that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria? antibiotics

Immunology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Causes pathology. (8) Pathogen
Phagocytic cell that presents antigen to Naïve T cells. (9,4) Dendritic cell
Forms in bacterial lipid membrane from polymerised C9 monomers. (3) MAC
Process that improves Ig affinity for antigen (7,13) Somatic hypermutation
Keystone pathogen in periodontitis P. ? (10) Gingivalis
Protein found in granules of CD8 T cells (8) Perforin
Number of antigen binding sites on a polymeric form of IgM (3) Ten
Method used to detect pathogenic component or antibodies in a clinical sample (5) ELISA
Co-receptor on anti-viral T cells (3) CD8
Mediates hypersensitivity type I reactions (3) IgE
Cleaves bonds in peptidoglycan (8) Lysozyme
A filamentus oral pathogen. F. ? (9) Nucleatum
An inactive enzyme precursor. (7) Zymogen
Cell line that produces monoclonal antibody (9) Hybridoma
Essential HIV enzyme that produces cDNA from viral RNA (7,13) Reverse transcriptase
Time it takes for antibodies against HIV to be detectable in an infected individual (14) Seroconversion
The basis of vaccination, the result of an effective adaptive response (6) Memory
Dimeric immunoglobulin that provides mucosal protection (3) IgA
Transports intracellularly derived peptides into ER (3) TAP
Express MHC II (3) APC
Immunoglobulin DNA variability hotspots (3) CDR
Old name for CXCL8 (3) IL8
Binds to micro-organisms enhancing their phagocytosis (7) Opsonin

Microbiology Unit 3 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A large group of naturally occurring and synthetic antibiotic produced by Penicillium mold and active against the cell wall of bacteria. Most important natural forms used to treat gram-positve cocci, some gram-negative bacteria. Penicillin
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics isolated from the fungus Cephalosporium. Cephalosporin
Antibiotic that targets the bacterial cell wall; used often in antibiotic resistant infections. Narrow spectrum of action; used to treat staphylococcal infections in cases of penicillin and methicillin resistance or in patients with an allergy to penicillin. Vancomycin
Inhibits the enzymatic step immediately preceding the step inhibited by sulfonamides; trimethoprim often given in conjunction with sulfamethoxazole because of this synergistic effect; used to treat Pneumocystis jiroveci in AIDS patients. Trimethoprim
Use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk. Prophylaxis
The smallest concentration of drug needed to visibly control microbial growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration
A chemical substance from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts. Antibiotic
Denotes drugs that have an effect on a wide variety of microorganisms. Broad spectrum
Preparations of live microbes used as a preventive or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens. Probiotic
In infection, the relative capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm host cells. Virulence
Infection will proceed only if a minimum number is present. Infectious dose
A specific chemical product of microbes, plants, and some animals that is poisonous to other organisms. Toxin
An infection that compounds a preexisting one. Secondary infection
The subjective evidence of infection and disease as perceived by the patient. Symptom
Systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood. Septicemia
The total number of cases of a disease in a certain area and time period. Prevalence
In epidemiology, the number of new cases of a disease occurring during a period. Incidence
An infectious disease indigenous to animals that humans can acquire through direct or indirect contact with infected animals. Zoonosis
An infection not present upon admission to a hospital but incurred while being treated there. Noscomial
An acquired resistance to an infectious agent due to prior contact with that agent. Immunity
White blood cells. The primary infection-fighting blood cells. Leukocyte
A mature granulocyte present in peripheral circulation, exhibiting a multilobular nucleus and numerous cytoplasmic grannules that retain a neutral stain. Active phagocytic cell in bacterial infection. Neutrophil
A large protein molecule evoked in response to an antigen that interacts specifically with that antigen. Antibody
A chemical substance produced by white blood cells and tissue cells that regulates development, inflammation, and immunity. Cytokine
A natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury that protects the host from further damage. It stimulates immune reactivity and blocks the spread of an infectious agent. Inflammation
The accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities. Also called swelling. Edema
Natural human chemical that inhibits viral replication; used therapeutically to combat viral infections and cancer. Interferon
In immunology, serum protein components that act in a definite sequence when set in motion either by an antigen-antibody complex or by factors of the alternative (properdin) pathway. Complement
In immunology, an augmented response or memory related to a prior stimulation of the immune system by antigen. It boosts the levels of immune substances. Anamnestic response
Any cell, particle, or chemical that induces a specific immune response by B cells or T cells and can stimulate resistance to an infection or a toxin. Antigen
To reduce the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium or virus by passing it through a nonnative host or by long-term subculture. Attenuated
The precise molecular group of an antigen that defines its specificity and triggers the immune response. Epitope
The status of collective acquired immunity in a population that reduces the likelihood that nonimmune individuals will contract and spread infection. One aim of vaccination is to induce herd immunity. Herd immunity
The long-lived progeny of a sensitized lymphocyte that remains in circulation and is genetically programmed to react rapidly with its antigen. Memory cells
The process of stimulating phagocytosis by affixing molecules to the surfaces of foreign cells or particles. Opsonization
A toxin that has been rendered nontoxic but is still capable of eliciting the formation of protective antitoxin antibodies; used in vaccines. Toxoid
Exposes a person to a specially prepared microbial stimulus, in a form that doe-s not cause the disease. Vaccination