Arabic for "God"; the supreme god of Islam
Allah
The ruler of an Arabic tribe, chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders
Sheikh
A pilgrimage to Makkah, one of the requirements of the Five Pillars of Islam
Hajj
The journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam
Hijrah
Monotheistic religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula during the seventh century A.D.
Islam
The holy scriptures of the religion of Islam
Quran
A law code drawn up by Muslim scholars after Muhammad's death; it provided believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives
Shariah
A successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims
Caliph
"Struggle in the way of God"
Jihad
A Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam
Shia
A Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true rulers of Islam
Sunni
A high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
Vizier
"Holder of power," the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans
Sultan
A Muslim house of worship
Mosque
Geometric patterns repeated over and over to completely cover a surface with decoration
Arabesque
The tower of a mosque from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
Minaret
The crier who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer from the minaret of a mosque
Muezzin
Lasted from 750-1258 after the Umayyad dynasty and was a more prosperous time; Baghdad became the capital and both Arab and non-Arab Muslims could hold civil and military offices
Abbasid dynasty
Islamic leader after Muhammad who expanded and united the Muslim world, conquering the entire Persian Empire, northern Africa, and the Byzantine Empire by 650.
Abū Bakr
Peninsula between Egypt and Mesopotamia; mostly desert land
Arabian Peninsula
Capital during the Abbasid dynasty
Baghdad
Site in Gaul (now France) that halted the Arab expansion in Europe
Battle of Tours
Arabs living in the desert who were among the first to convert to Islam
Bedouin
Sea north of Persia; Arab traders carried goods here and beyond
Caspian Sea
Capital of Umayyad, Spain; largest city in Europe after Constantinople in 750
Córdoba
Dynasty that arose in Egypt after Abbasid dynasty; focus of trade shifted to Cairo, Egypt
Fatimids
Acts of worship of the Islam faith: belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage
Five Pillars of Islam
Location in Spain where the Islamic palace Alhambra was built in the fourteenth century
Granada
Caliph of Abbasid dynasty; his reign is described as a golden age
Hārūn al-Rashīd
Arabic historian in the fourteenth century who argued for a cyclical view of history
Ibn Sina
Arabic philosopher in the twelfth century who wrote a commentary on Aristotle's surviving works
Ibn-Khaldūn
Arabic philosopher and scientist who wrote a medical encyclopedia that among other things, stressed the contagious nature of certain diseases; also known as Avicenna
Ibn-Rushd
Rich widow who became Muhammad's wife and became the first convert to Islam
Khadija
"City of the prophet"; city to which Muhammad and his supporters went in 622
Madinah
City in the Arabian Peninsula where Muhammad was born; location of the Kaaba, a holy shrine Arabs revered for its association with Abraham
Makkah
Pastoral people who conquered much of the known world in the early thirteenth century with a destructive force
Mongols
Prophet who received final revelations from God (after Moses and Jesus)
Muhammad
People who practice the religion of Islam
Muslims
Twelfth-century Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer; wrote the Rubaiyat
Omar Khayyám
Sultan of Egypt who took control of Syria; his army invaded Jerusalem in 1187 and destroyed the Christian crusaders there
Saladin
Nomadic people from central Asia who converted to Islam and took command of the empire in 1055
Seljuk Turks
Greatly expanded the Arab Empire, ruled from 661 to 750
Umayyad dynasty
The act of revealing or disclosing; disclosure.
Revelations
An act or instance of submitting.
Submission
To adjust with relation to, or bring into due relation to surroundings, circumstances, facts, etc.
Oriented
Characterized by a very complicated or involved arrangement of parts
Complex
To gather together
Compiled
To eat into or away; destroy by slow consumption or disintegration
Eroded
A series of comments, explanations, or annotations
Commentary
To change in form, appearance, or structure; metamorphose
Transform
A headscarf covering the head and neck
Hijab
A cloak that covers the full body, with a head-scarf worn underneath
Chador
A vail that completely covers the face and body
Burka
Believing there is no deity but the One God, and Muhammad is his messanger
Belief
Performing the prescribed prayers five times a day
Prayer
Giving part of one's wealth to the poor.
Charity
Refraining from food and drink from dawn to he sunset through the month of Ramadan.
Fasting
Making a pilgrimage to Makkah once in a lifetime.
Pilgrimage
A place Muslims believe Muhammad ascended into heaven.
The Dome of the Rock
A type of script used in the earliest copies of the Quran.
Kufic script

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