A state where one thing or person requires another thing or person to meet goals; the probability of one’s goal attainment is linked to the probability of the other’s goal attainment
A struggle among a small number of interdependent people (usually two) arising from perceived interference with goal achievement
Internal struggle about one’s competing goals
Communication within oneself; self-dialog of competing goals
Goals relating to and around tangible resources, or any measurable factor around which desired outcomes can be built (also called content goals)
Goals of how things should be done; In negotiation, a party’s desired means of how an event should happen or negotiation should proceed; How one wishes events to unfold, how decisions are made, or how communication occurs
Goals that help identify what the parties are to each other; A party’s preference for the depth or type of connection to another person (are complex and may change)
Goals regarding the expression of one’s image (sense of self-worth, pride, self-respect, or power); the affirmation, reaffirmation, saving, transformation, or subversion of self or other face
A moment when how one responds can change the entire direction of a relationship; A critical moment during interaction that can set the tone for the future interactions
The literal dictionary definition of a word
Personal association for a word; An individualized reaction to a word derived from one’s experience with it
A theory that each person in a conversation has three views (totaling six): my view of myself, my view of you, and my view of how you view me; How you view yourself, how you view the other person, how you believe the other person views you, how the other person views himself or herself, how the other person views you, how the other person believes you view her or him
Issues that have potential for conflict that parties do not yet perceive to be a problem; the conclusion has not been made that each party has conflicting goals that are interfering with each other’s achievement
Conflicts caused by misinterpretations and misinformation; regardless of whether incompatibility actually exists, if the parties believe incompatibility exists, then conditions are ripe for conflict
A rational weighing of facts and evidence using the rules of logic; Providing reasons to support an assertion or claim
Morton Deutch’s theory that suggests the choices we make in communication are often reciprocated and played back to us by the other; One’s behavior will lead others to behave in similar ways
Not facts but rather tentative explanations for observed behaviors; provide insight into the root causes of conflict, identify patters in interactions, and provide hints for how best to procced towards a positive outcome
Behavior is learned; A theory that holds one’s personality and behavior are influenced by social development as opposed to biological development
Behavior is biological; A theory that holds one’s personality and behavior are influenced by biological development rather than social development
Early theorists idea that meaning resides in the message as if communication were like a machine with discrete parts that functioned in preset sequences, a series of one-way messages; The mistaken idea that communication processes work like machines where one component can be removed and understood apart from the system in which it occurs
A reevaluation about communication of theorists dismissing mechanical model suggesting communication be seen as a complex process that occurs continuously and simultaneously; A simultaneous, ever changing interactive flow of communication
Words to which humans attach meaning; A word, gesture, or picture that stands for something else
Sigmund Freud’s theory that postulates an internal struggle between the id and the superego; Behavior is motived by both the conscious and subconscious mind where the id, ego, and super ego are all vying for control
Pre-World War II era theory developed by Lewin and others, that suggests within a system there are forces that drive conflicts and forces that restrain conflicts
Conflict where there are two choices of equal positive value; The choice of two equally attractive options
A state where one thing or person requires another thing or person to meet goals; the probability of one’s goal attainment is linked to the probability of the other’s goal attainment

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What is a crossword?

Crossword puzzles have been published in newspapers and other publications since 1873. They consist of a grid of squares where the player aims to write words both horizontally and vertically.

Next to the crossword will be a series of questions or clues, which relate to the various rows or lines of boxes in the crossword. The player reads the question or clue, and tries to find a word that answers the question in the same amount of letters as there are boxes in the related crossword row or line.

Some of the words will share letters, so will need to match up with each other. The words can vary in length and complexity, as can the clues.

Who is a crossword suitable for?

The fantastic thing about crosswords is, they are completely flexible for whatever age or reading level you need. You can use many words to create a complex crossword for adults, or just a couple of words for younger children.

Crosswords can use any word you like, big or small, so there are literally countless combinations that you can create for templates. It is easy to customise the template to the age or learning level of your students.

How do I create a crossword template?

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How do I choose the clues for my crossword?

Once you’ve picked a theme, choose clues that match your students current difficulty level. For younger children, this may be as simple as a question of “What color is the sky?” with an answer of “blue”.

Are crosswords good for students?

Crosswords are a great exercise for students' problem solving and cognitive abilities. Not only do they need to solve a clue and think of the correct answer, but they also have to consider all of the other words in the crossword to make sure the words fit together.

If this is your first time using a crossword with your students, you could create a crossword FAQ template for them to give them the basic instructions.

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Can I create crosswords in other languages?

Crosswords are a fantastic resource for students learning a foreign language as they test their reading, comprehension and writing all at the same time. When learning a new language, this type of test using multiple different skills is great to solidify students' learning.

We have full support for crossword templates in languages such as Spanish, French and Japanese with diacritics including over 100,000 images, so you can create an entire crossword in your target language including all of the titles, and clues.