Type
Crossword
Description

This is a molecule on the surface of or within a cell that recognizes and binds with specific molecules, producing some effect in the cell. Receptor
these drugs trigger the cell's response in a manner similar to the action of the body's own chemical messenger. Agonists
these drugs do not trigger the cell's response in a manner similar to the action of the body's own chemical messenger. Antagonists
This is a quantiy of a drug administered at one time Dose
This is the lowest level of a drug in the body know as? Trough
This is the highest level of a drug in the body Peak
The fraction of the administered dose that is available to the target tissues is an expression of what drugs? Bioavailability
Drugs taken orally must pass though the intestinal wall and traverse the liver before reaching systemic sites. This process is referred to? First-pass effect
As greater doses of a drug are given, a greater response is noted until a point is reached when the response no longer increases with increased dosing. Ceiling effect
Optimum dosage yields a range of therapeutic effects, whereas under-dosing has little effect on the healing process and over-dosing can lead to toxicity and death. Therapeutic Range
The length of time a drug is at this level is referred to as? Duration of action
The time is necessary for the body to eliminate half of the drug in the body at any time is known as? Half-life
To bind with a specific cell type, the messenger must have a chemical structure that is complementary to the structure of that cell's receptors. This property of a receptor site is known as? Specificity
Drugs often act like the chemical messengers described above to exert powerful and specific actions in the body. Mechanisms of drug action

intro to pharmacology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

route by which the drug is absorbed into the circulation via oral or gastric mucose or the small intestine Enteral
The study of poisons and unwanted responses to drugs and other chemicals Toxicology
(2 words) The time it takes for one half of the original amount of a drug to be removed from the body Half-Life
What the drug does to the body Pharmacodynamics
Decreasing response to repeated drug doses Tolerance
(3 words) metabolism of a drug and its passage from the liver into the circulation First-Pass Metabolism
(2 words) Ratio of a drug's toxic level to the level that provides therapeutic benefits Therapeutic Index
Permanent changes in genetic composition Mutation
Study of drugs' movement into, within, and out of the body Pharmacokinetics
Extent of drug absorption, or how much of the drug will reach the circulation Bioavailability
Main organ for excretion Kidney
Place where metabolism frequently occurs Liver
Area surrounding the eyeball Periocular

Toxicology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

the branch of science concerned with the nature, effects, and detection of poisons toxicology
substance introduced into the environment toxicant
relating to or denoting a substance, typically a synthetic chemical, that is foreign to the body or to an ecological system xenobiotic
the degree to which a substance can damage an organism toxicity
a quantity of a medicine or drug taken or recommended to be taken at a particular time dose
the state of being exposed to contact with something exposure
situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment hazard
the time during which something continues duration
the rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample frequency
between acute and chronic subacute
the period is usually as long as a month but less than 10% of a lifetime subchronic
persisting for a long time or constantly recurring chronic
branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms toxicologists
a systematic process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking risk-assessment
the amount of a drug or other substance that will cause death when administered lethal-dose
any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer carcinogens

Cell Communication Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Signaltransductionpathway
A system of stimuli and response correlated to population density Quorum Sensing
A form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells Paracrine
A release of hormones that act on distant target cells in the body Endocrine
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal Synaptic
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Hormone
When the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to receptor protein Reception
The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector Transduction
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus Response
Usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein Ligand
Act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior GProtein
Constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses Gproteincoupledreceptor
Guanine Triphosphate GTP
Guanine Diphosphate GDP
Refers to the reversible transition of a molecule into a nearly identical chemical or physical state Activated
High-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors RTKs
A phosphate group is added Phosphorylation
They pass the message to the next signaling component in the chain without otherwise participating Relay Protein
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger Ligandgatedionchannel
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them Protein Kinase
A phosphate group is taken away Dephosphorylation
A sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins Phosphorylation cascade
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein Protein Phosphatases
A molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination where an action within the cell is to take place second messengers
A secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells IP3
A glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages DAG
A mechanism leading to multiple copies of a chromosomal region within a chromosome arm Amplification
Interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes Scaffolding Proteins
A process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms Apoptosis
Protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell Blebbing

Ch.2 Pharmacology Worksheet

Type
Matching Worksheet
Description

A process whereby a drug blocks enzyme activity and impairs the metabolism of another drug can be overcome the dosage of the drug. Competitive Inhibition
The extent to which a drug is metabolized by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. First-Pass Effect
Chemical messengers that originate within the body. Endogenous Chemical Messenger
A system of enzymes that plays a key role in oxidizing drugs and other substances. Cytochrome P-450
A state in which a drug cannot be metabolized by a person's body regardless of the dosage. Complete Inhibition
Amount of a drug that will bring the blood concentration rapidly to a therapeutic level. loading dose
They predict the time dependence of a drug's concentration in the body fluids following it's administration. It deals with the action of the drug once it reaches the target organ. pharmcokinetic modeling
A measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening when a drug is administered, or a warning about something dangerous that could happen. Precaution
It helps convert molecules or substrates , such as sugar , into different, more readily usable materials. Metabolic Pathway
Metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms,it determines the duration and intensity of a drug's pharmacologic action. Metabolism
A constant amount of drug that is eliminated per unit time . For example 10 mg of a drug may be eliminated per hour. Zero-Order
A type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate. Noncompetitive Inhibition
A medication or treatment designed and used to prevent a disease from occurring. Prophylaxis
An uncomfortable , irritating sensation that creates an urge to scratch that can involve any part of the body. Pruritus
A sudden formed elevation of the skin surface as a welt especially a flat burning or itching on the skin caused by injection of a solution before it normally dispersed Wheals
An allergic reaction caused by a food, animal, medication,insect sting, or a chemical product. Urticaria
The reduced reaction to a drug following it's repeated use. Tolerance
The level or concentration ( C trough ) is the lowest concentration reached by a drug before the next dose is administered. Therapeutic Range
The responses after a treatment of any kind,the results of which are judged to be useful or favorable. Therapeutic Effect
The effects occurring in tissues distant from the site of contact between the body and the medical device or bio material. Systemic Effect
When a drug is metabolized by the body into a modified form which continues to produce effects in the body . Metabolite
The quality of having a certain action ,as of affecting only certain organisms or tissues ,or reacting only with certain substances as antibodies with certain antigens. Specificity
The capacity of a solute to dissolve in a pure solvent. Solubility
An effect, that is secondary wanted effect that occurs due to drug therapy. Side Effect
Chemical structures composed of protein that receives and signals that may be integrated into biological systems. Receptor
The study of the time course of drug absorption , distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Pharmacokinetics

Cellular Communication Vocabulary Crossword Match the word to the definition.

Type
Crossword
Description

Strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction. Amplification
Convert (a substance, molecule, etc.) into a reactive form. Activated
The bulging out of a part of a cell below the plasma membrane or expansion of air-filled tissue, as occurs in the lungs in bullous emphysema. Blebbing
Process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis
A common biochemical process in which a phosphate group is removed from an organic compound through hydrolysis. Dephosphorylation
Occurs when endocrine cells release hormones that act on distant target cells in the body. Endocrine signaling
Monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. G Protein
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G Protein Coupled Receptor
Generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. GTP
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Hormone
Substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Ligand
Ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger, such as a neurotransmitter. Ligand-gated ion channel
Form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Paracrine signaling
The transferring of phosphoryl group from a donor to the recipient molecule. Phosphorylation
Sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins. Phosphorylation Cascade
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Protein Kinase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein Phosphatases
System of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing
Target cell's detection of a signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Reception
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. Reponse
The high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Scaffolding Proteins
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal. Synaptic signaling
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. Signal Transduction Pathway
Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus. Second messengers
Process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction
Can control different processes in the cell including the cell cycle. Relay Protein
Messenger of neurologic information from one cell to another. Neurotransmitter

Pharmacology Ch. 1 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

1.1 Who was the 1st researcher who isolated morphine from opium in 1805? Friedrich Serturner
1.2 Which word is derived from two Greek words: pharmakon, which means "medicine", and logos, which means "study"? Pharmacology
1.2 What class of antibiotics are useful in the treatment of many infectious diseases, for example endocarditis, which helps minimize valvular damage. Caution must be used, because this class of antibiotic can cause inner ear toxicity and neuromuscular impairment (esp. if furosemide is administered at the same time). aminoglycosides
1.3 Which term is concerned with the 'prevention' of disease and treatment of suffering? therapeutics
1.3 Which term is the application of drugs for the purpose of 'treating' diseases and alleviating human suffering? pharmacotherapy
1.4 Drugs/medications, Complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM), and WHAT ELSE are the three general categories which substances applied for therapeutic purposes fall into? biologics
A what, is a chemical agent capable of producing biologic responses within the body? drug
After a drug is administered, it is called a what? medication
1.4 Which therapeutic approach involves natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, etc.? CAM therapies
1.5 Which term is used to refer to the way a drug works at the molecular, tissue, or body system level? pharmacologic classification
1.5 Which drug classification lowers the plasma volume? diuretic
Which drug classification dilates peripheral blood vessels? vasodilator
1.5 What term is used to describe the well-understood drug model with which other drugs in its representative class are compared? For example, by knowing the effects of penicillin V, students can extend this knowledge to the other drugs in the penicillin class of antibiotics. prototype drug
1.6 Tylenol is considered a __________ name? trade
1.6 Acetaminophen is considered a ______ name? Generic
1.7 Patients prefer to take what kind of drugs, because they are easy to obtain, no appointment or prescription needed, and are cheap? OTC
1.8 What source is provided by the FDA for searching out drug products by active ingredients, trade name, generic equivalents, and the manufacturer? Orange Book
1.8 What term is the physiological ability of the drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect? bioavailability
1.9 What term is a subdiscipline of health economics, which has helped institutions involving broader application of a particular type of drug therapy? pharmacoeconomics

Pharmacodynamics Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

1. Sometimes, especially in the beginning of administration of a new drug regimen, the patient and physician must work together to determine what concentrations of drug in the bloodstream produce the desired effect, but without toxicity. The dose range they are seeking will put the plasma concentrations in the _____ range. therapeutic
2. After his car accident, Mr. Tripp is prescribed diazepam to help him relax. However, because he is still upset after leaving the emergency room, he stops for a drink on his way home. Shortly after Mr. Tripp arrives home, his wife finds him comatose on the bedroom floor and calls an ambulance. Mr. Tripp has experienced a _____ combination. synergistic
3. Doug tries to evaluate how long a new drug remains effective in the body. He does this by plotting on a graph the points at which the drug’s effect can no longer be demonstrated in the subjects who are taking it. Doug is pinpointing the _____ of action. termination
4. Mrs. Pitt is taking a drug for which her blood levels are monitored on a weekly basis. Her physician explains that it is important that they determine the maximum amount of drug concentrated in her blood at any given time; this is the _____ serum concentration. peak
5. The time it takes for the amount of a specific drug’s concentration in the plasma to decline by 50% is its biologic _____. half-life
6. In determining the best dosage range for a specific new drug, a team of researchers tries to determine the lowest plasma concentration that still produces the drug effect they’re looking for. Their calculations will, they hope, give them the _____ effective concentration. minimum
1. Drug A takes 5 hours to move from onset of action to the time when its effects can no longer be seen. Drug B takes 3 hours. Drug B has a shorter _____ of action. duration
2. Mrs. Pitt is having very serious adverse reactions to the new drug she is taking. She goes into shock and is rushed to the emergency room, where the medical team determines that the drug Mrs. Pitt is taking has reached its _____ level of serum concentration. toxic
3. Doug determines the relative safety of a drug in terms of a ratio between its lethal dose and its effective dose. This measure is called the therapeutic _____. index
4. Mr. Flack discovers that he keeps having an immune-mediated response against the drug he is taking. This is a(n) _____ reaction. allergic
5. The closer that the ratio between lethal dose and effective dose is to 1, the more likely you may _____ your patient at the same time you are trying to cure him or her. kill
6. Doug is testing a new drug to see how long it takes, once the drug is administered, for the first signs of effect. He refers to this as the _____ period. latent

Fundamentals of Nursing Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin cyanosis
the act of listening with a stethoscope to the sounds produced within the body auscultation
difficult or labored breathing dyspnea
pulse rate below 60 beats/min in an adult bradycardia
illness with rapid onset of symptoms and lasts a relativly short time acute
refers to actions pf a drug as it moves through the body pharmacokinetics
point whenthe drug is at its lowest concentration trough
injections administered into the adipose tissue layer subcutaneous
thick, leathery scab or dry crust that is necrotic eschar
thick dark yellow or green drainage with a foul odor purulent
exercises involving muscle shortening and active movement isotonic
difficulty swallowing or the inability to swallow dysphagia
urination during the night nocturia
artificial opening for waste excretion located on the body surface stoma
data that is directly observed objective
study that deals with chemicals that affect the body's functioning pharmacology
removal of nonviable, necrotic tissue debridement
inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level hypoxia

The Neuron Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

What part of the Neuron receives messages from other cells Dendrites
This part of the Neuron passes messages from the cell body to glands, muscles or other Neurons Axon
Covers the Axon of the Neuron, accelerating neural impulses Myelin Sheath
The space between the axon tip of the sending Neuron and the dendrite of the receiving Neuron Synapse
The messenger between sending and receiving neurons, this crosses the synaptic gap between Neurons neurotransmitters
The period of time in which action cannot take place as a result of recent action Refractory Period
The stimulation level needed to trigger or cause a neural impulse Threshold
Neurons that carry information coming to the brain and spinal cord Sensory Neurons
The opposite of Sensory Neurons, this carries information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Motor Neurons
Do or don't there is no try All or nothing response
Happens when Sodium is on the outside and Potassium is on the inside Polarized
Sodium inside and Potassium on the outside Depolarized
an electrical current caused by depolarizing current. Neuron sending information away from the cell body Action Potential
When the Neuron is not sending a signal on the Axon Resting potential

Health Care Careers Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

Examines eyes for vision problems and defects Optometrist
Provides total patient care by assessing a patients condition, administering medications, dressing changes, starting IVs, giving blood and other treatments Registered Nurse
Doctors who specialize in the care of the teeth and mouth Dentist
A person who is responsible for the planning of individual therapeutic meals to help promote healing Dietician
Relating to or using the methods or principles of science Scientific
A physician specialty who specializes in the diagnosis of diseases and infections by examining cells, tissues, and body fluids of patients pathologist
Provde a therapeutic environment for the delivery of health care Support Services
An individual awaiting or under medical care and treatment Patient
Create a picture of patient health status at a single point in time Diagnostic Services
The common name for a physician: a person skilled in the healing arts Doctor
A scientist that studies human genes Geneticist
Manintain or change the health status of the patient over time Therapeutic Services
Use scientific and technical advancements to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic abilities in health care Biotechnology
Provide functions that support and document patient care Health Informatics
Also called heart beat Pulse
A person who dispenses and suggests medications to be used in the treatment of diseases and disorders Pharmacist
Tools you use for a specific task Equipment