Type
Crossword
Description

a nucleid acid present in all living cell. RNA
the shape of DNA. double helix
where does the mRNA travel to ribose
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied Translation
Organelle that produces proteins Ribosome
The molecular unit of heredity Gene
Process of producing two identical replicas of DNA DNA Replication
Essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms rRNA
A significant and basic change Mutation
The monomer for Protein Amino acid
Made up of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine Nitrogenous base
Process in which the DNA is copied into RNA by polymerase Transcription
Physical link between the mRNA and the amino acids sequence of proteins tRNA
Bonding of a large number of amino acids forming a chain Polypetide
Type of base that allows cells to copy information from one generation to another Complementary
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase

DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

Protein Synthesis Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most cell's DNA Nucleus
molecule that allows for transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis RNA
monomer that forms DNA Nucleotide
in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder Double Helix
process by which DNA is copied Replication
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides DNA polymerase
either of the two sides that make up a double helix of DNA complementary side
matches Thymine and Uracil Adenine
matches with Cytosine Guanine
matches with Guanine Cytosine
matches with Adenine Thymine
matches with Adenine Uracil
nitrogenous base, has two circular ring structures, A, G match with a pyrimidine Purine
organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins Ribosome
nitrogenous base, has one circular ring structure, C, T match with purine Pyrimidine
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA Transcription
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced Translation
enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand RNA polymerase
carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Messenger RNA
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein Ribosomal RNA
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis Transfer RNA
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid Codon
sequence of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation Anticodon
molecule that makes up proteins, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur Amino Acid
Polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids Protein

DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

Adenine
Amino acid
Anticodon
Chromosome
Codon
Complementary
Cytoplasm
Cytosine
Deoxyribose
DNA
Double stranded
Guanine
Helicase
Helix
Message
mRNA
Mutation
Nitrogen base
Nucleotide
Nucleus
Peptide bond
Phosphate
Polymerase
Protein
Replication
Ribose
Ribosomal
Ribsome
RNA
rRNA
Single stranded
Start
Stop
Sugar
Thymine
Transcription
Transfer
Translation
tRNA
Uracil

from DNA to Proteins Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen containing base nucleotide
process by which DNA is copied replication
nucleaic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthases RNA
process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA transcription
form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm ,where it serves as a template for protein synthesis messanger RNA
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock ribosomal RNA
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis transfer RNA
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced translation
sequence of 3 nucleotides that codes for one amino acid codon
codon that signals the ribosomes to stop translation stop condon
codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation start codon
set of 3 nucleotides in the tRNA molecule that binds to a complpementary mRNA codon during translation anticodon
change in the DNA sequence mutation
mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide point mutation
mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence frameshift mutation
agent that can induce or increase the freguency of mutation in organisms mutagen

DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Type macromolecule know a nucleic acid. dna
a nucleid acid present in all living cell. rna
it is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA. cytosine
a compoun that ocurrs in guano and fish scales. guanine
in DNA its place taken by thymine. uracil
a pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA thymine
a purine derivatinve, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA. adenine
the shape of DNA. double helix
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen. deoxyribose
where does the mRNA travel to ribose
a compound consisting of a nucleosides linked to a phosphate group. nucleotide
process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell. protein synthesis
messenger RNA, is a subtype of RNA. mrna
activated by enzyme that attaches a specific amino acid to the end trna
the first step of the central dogmainvolves the synthesis of mRNA from DNA in process transcription
once the mRNA is synthesized and processed, it moves to the ribosome. translation
a sphere- shaped structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis. ribosome
the building blocks of all biological proteins. amino acid
set of three bases codon
opposite codon antidon
built from a large number of amino acids. polypeptide

DNA and RNA Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A change in the genetic material of cell Mutation
Each three base set of genetic code. Codon
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during _____________ . Translation
The language for naming RNA. Genetic code
A condition in which an organism has extra set of chromosome. Polyploidy
A group of three bases of tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of condon of mRNA. Anticodon
The tips of chromosomes. Telomere
The process of copying DNA from DNA. Replication
A kind of virus that infects bacteria cell. Bacteriophage
The process in which one stain of bacteria is change by a gene or genes from another bacteria. Transformation
An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA Polymerase
A long chains of amino acids that make proteins Polypeptides
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template , or pattern. Transcription
A type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to all cell part. mRNA
A type of RNA that carries each amino acid to form ribosomes. Transfer RNA
A singled-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. RNA
A chemical or physical agent in the environment that interacts with DNA and may cause mutation. Mutagen
A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes. Diploid
A cell that contains only one set of genes. Haploid
Chromosomes in which one set comes from male parent and another set comes from female parent Homologous

DNA Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The monomer for Protein Amino acid
Monomer for nuclaeic acid nucleotide
A significant and bassic change Mutation
The molecular unit of heredity Gene
Single stranded molecule found in Cytoplasm RNA
Process in which the DNA is copied into RNA by polymerase Transcription
Process in which ribosomes create proteins. Translation
Three nucleotides that form a genetic code Codon
Made up of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine Nitrogenous bases
Bonding of a large number of amino acids forming a chain Polypetide
Organelle that produces proteins Ribosome
Type of base that allows cells to copy information from one generation to another Complementary
Physical link between the mRNA and the amino acids sequence of proteins tRNA
Essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms rRNA
Process of producing two identical replicas of DNA DNA replication

chapter 12 biology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

sequence of dna with proteins and traits gene
carries copies if instructions messenger rna
transfers amino acids transfer rna
helps assemble proteins ribosomal rna
dna copied into a rna sequence transcription
binds to dna and separates strands during transcriptions rna polymerase
dna enzyme binds to make rna promoter
not involved in coding for proteins intron
3 nucleotide sequence on messenger rna codon
decoding of mrna into a chain translation
trna molecule that are complimentary to a mrna codon anticodon
dna coiled in around proteins chromatin
dna coiled in the chromatin histone
cell duplicates its dna replication
enzyme involved in replication dna polymerase
1 strand of bacteria is changed by a gene transformation
virus that infects bacteria bacteriophage
monomer of nucleic acids nucleotide
A=T and G=C base pairing
change in the dna sequence mutation
changes in 1 or few nucleotides point mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame frameshift mutation
extra set of chromosomes polyploidy
genes operating together operon
operon is turned off operator
cells become specialized differentiation
controls the differentiation of cells and tissue hoxgene
codes for proteins exon

Transcription and Translation Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

The process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) RNA Polymerase / The main transcription enzyme Transcription
The main transcription enzyme, and and enzyme that links ribo-nucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription. RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to a(n) ________ sequence near the beginning of a gene (directly or through helper proteins) Promoter
Transcription uses one of the two exposed DNA strands as a template. RNA polymerase "walks" along this strand of DNA in the 3' to 5' direction what is this strand called? Template Strand
This is recognized by one of the general transcription factors, allowing other transcription factors and eventually RNA polymerase to bind. It also contains lots of As and Ts, which make it easy to pull the strands of DNA apart. TATA Box
The stage when the RNA strand gets longer, thanks to the addition of new nucleotides. Elongation
RNA polymerase will keep transcribing until it gets signals to stop. What is the process of ending transcription called? Termination
Transcription factors help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize promoter sequences, forming this. Transcription Initiation
The process where a cell reads information from a molecule called a messenger RNA (mRNA) and uses this information to build a protein. Translation
When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a(n) ___________. Polyribosome
Translation involves “decoding” a messenger RNA (mRNA) and using its information to build a(n) _________, or chain of amino acids. Polypeptide
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of genetic code. Codons
Each tRNA has a(n) _________, a set of three nucleotides that binds to a matching mRNA codon through base pairing. The other end of the tRNA carries the amino acid that's specified by the codon. Anticodon
tRNAs bind to mRNAs inside of a protein-and-RNA in this structure. Ribosome
In this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin. Intiation
During initiation, a ribosome, mRNA, and an initiator tRNA must come together to form the __________, the molecular setup needed to start making a new protein. Initiation Complex
This process includes RNA splicing, the addition of a modified nucleotide 5' cap to the 5'end, and the addition of a poly-A tail to the 3' end. RNA processing
In Translation, this nucleotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence. mRNA
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed. Exons
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processign level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcription. Alternative RNA splicing
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription fo specific genes. Transcription factors

Replication, Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Part of a chromosome, passed on from parents to offspring gene
Unwound DNA chromatin
Passed on from parents to offspring trait
In DNA, adenine pairs with _____ thymine
_____ contain nitrogen (2 words) nitrogenbases
The bases are often abbreviated to _, _, _ and _ atgc
The sides of DNA are made of _____ and phosphate. deoxyribose
_____ connect the bases (2 words) hydrogenbonds
DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder, or _____ (2 words) doublehelix
DNA replication is _____ semiconservative
DNA replication does not happen when the cell _____ divides
Helicase _____ DNA unzips
_____ creates a primer on the DNA strand by adding RNA nucleotides primase
_____ adds nucleotides and checks to make sure the new copy is correct (2 words) dnapolymerase
_____ joins the Okazaki fragments ligase
DNA is _____ antiparallel
Because it only makes 5'-3', DNA polymerase makes little sections for the other side called _____ (2 words) okazakifragments
DNA polymerase replicates one strand _____ and one not continuously
Ribosomes are located on the _____ (2 words) endoplasmicreticulum
_____ are made in the ribosomes proteins
Transcription is the process of making _____ mrna
Transcription happens in the _____ nucleus
RNA has _____ instead of thymine uracil
After transcription, mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches itself to a _____ ribosome
Translation occurs in the _____, specifically on the ribosomes cytoplasm
The message from the mRNA will be translated into an _____ sequence (2 words) aminoacid
_____ carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis trna
A(n) _____ is a sequence of three bases that codes for an amino acid codon
A(n) _____ is a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule anticodon
tRNA and mRNA are involved in _____ (2 words) proteinsynthesis
A change that takes place in DNA mutation
Mutations can be _____ spontaneous
A mutagen is a(n) _____, such as radiation, chemicals, high temperatures, or UV light mutagen
A mutation can change the _____ and be replicated when forming new cells (2 words) geneticcode
A mutation can be _____, beneficial, or harmful neutral
One base is placed incorrectly substitution
One base is deleted deletion
One base is added insertion
Type of mutation that changes the entire sequence of DNA following the mistake (2 words) frameshiftmutation
A and G are both _____ purines
T and C are _____ pyrimidines
A purine —> pyrimidine or pyrimidine —> purine mutation transversion
A purine —> purine or pyrimidine —> pyrimidine mutation transition