end stage kidney disease
make red blood cell
high blood pressure
balance body fluid
white blood cells
red blood cells
Production of blood cells
First red cell precursor
Bi-lobed white blood cell
Immature cells produced through erythropoiesis and released into blood
Hormone regulating erythrocyte production
An abnormally large nucleated red cell precursor with an immature nucleus
Nutrient absorbed in the duodenum and stored in the body for 4 months
Two genes for making this chain exist on each chromosome 16 (4 in cell) multiple mutations can lead to thalassaemia
An autosomal recessive disorder in which HbS polymerises if exposed to low oxygen levels, distorting the RBC
Red cell destruction
Diatomic gas measuring 21% at room air.
Abnormal presence of air in the plueral cavity.
Monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide
An increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue
High-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx
Caused by hyperventilation
Iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells
Inflammatory condition of the lung
aka "sibilant rhonchi"
Deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of heart and lung disease.
Shortness of breath
Clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs
Coarse rattling respiratory sounds, usually caused by secretions
A sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages
The smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation.
An audible sound present in some patients with pleurisy
Inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs
Long term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter it
Coughing up blood or blood-stained mucus
The appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin
The function of this cell is to promote blood coagulation.
A hemoglobin value of <6g/dl is considered _________ anemia.
This suffix means lack, too few.
PO iron supplements are best absorbed in an ______ environment.
Common symptom of a client experiencing a sickle cell crisis.
This anemia is a deficiency in B12.
Term describing small red cells (low MCV value).
The function of this cell is to carry oxygen to body cells.
Chronic kidney disease cause decrease ____ cell production.
The medical term for low platelet count.
Test performed if GI bleed is suspected.
Methotrexate medication may decrease absorption of ______ acid.
__________ helps in energy production and helps the body resist infection.
Meat, poultry, leafy vegetables, dried fruit all help with _________.
_________, orange fruits, dairy products all help with vitamin A.
Vitamin E is a _____________.
Vitamin B helps protect against __________ and form red blood cells.
Vitamin D enchances __________ absorption.
___________ builds and renews bones and teeth.
Vitamin A promotes ___________ skin and hair.
Calcium regulates __________, muscles and nerves.
___________ maintains healthy nerves, brain and muscle functions.
A vitamin that keeps the lining of the nose,mouth and digestive tract healthy is ________.
Another name for folic acid that helps rebuild red blood cells and prevents birth defects is _________.
Iron helps rebuild and renew _________ to carry oxygen to cells.
Sodium, chloride and ____________ help with muscles and nerve actions.
Foods like meat, liver, fish, dairy products, whole grain breads are all good sources of _________.
Sodium, chloride and potassium help maintain the body's __________ of fluid.
Small amounts of __________ is added to the water supply in many communities.
Vitamin K helps blood ________.
The body also ____________ vitamin D itself when exposed to sunlight.
Vitamin C helps wounds ________, keeps blood vessels healthy and increases resistance to infections.
What enhances EPO production by the kidneys?
Raw materials required for ________ : amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates
_____ is essential for hemoglobin synthesis
Free iron ions are ____ so iron is stored inside cells as protein-iron complexes such as ferritin & hemosiderin
iron transport protein
Developing Erythrocytes take up iron as needed to form...
Vitamin B12 and folic acid are ______ for normal DNA synthesis
Dying Erythrocytes are engulfed and destroyed by _____
Many erytrocyte ____ can be classified as either anemias or polycythemias
____ anemias can be the result of blood loss, and treated by blood replacement
_____ hemorrhagic anemia occurs with slight but persistent blood loss
_____ anemias are caused by hemoglobin abnormalities, transfusion of mismatched blood as well as certain bacterial and parasitic infections
_____ anemia results from the destruction or inhibition of red marrow from certain drugs, chemicals, ionizing radiation, or viruses
____ hemoglobin content Happens when hemoglobin molecules are normal, but there are fewer erythrocytes than normal
____ Anemia is caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency.
____ hemoglobin result of genetics
______ cell Anemia is caused by just one amino acid in the 287-long chain changing
artificially inducing polycythemia
Vitamin B12 _____ jeopardize rapidly dividing cell populations like developing Erythrocytes
chronic kidney disease
red blood cells
renal bone loss
in warm conditions, the diameter of small blood vessels near the surface of the body increases, which increases blood flow
in cold conditions, the diameter of small blood vessels near the surface of the body decreases, which reduces blood flow
vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
cell fragments which help in blood clotting
straw-coloured liquid part of blood
bright red substance formed when oxygen binds to haemoglobin in red blood cells; this is how oxygen is transported to tissues
white blood cells that produce antibodies and antitoxins to destroy pathogens
chemical found in red blood cells which binds to oxygen to transport it around the body
the net movement of particles from a high concentration to a lower concentration (along their concentration gradient)
small blood vessels that are one cell thick and permeable for diffusion of gases; join arteries to veins
blood vessels with thick elastic walls that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart under high pressure
artery that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to tissues around the body
the anterior (nearer to the head) chambers of the heart that receive blood from the body or lungs
vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium
the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood around the body (left) or back to the lungs (right)
muscle that makes up the heart; it continuously contracts and relaxes
blood cells with a concave shape which are adapted to the transport of oxygen. As they move through the blood vessels they carry oxygen from the lungs to body cells