Farming that emits methane through flooding
Industrial process that produces co2 through its making
Released by fossil fuels
Lower crop yields result in
Released by Industrial waste at landfill sites
The denser of the two plates
Plates moving away from each other
Lava with high silica content
Type of volcano at convergent plate boundaries
Material falling down a slope is known as mass ...
Waves crash against rock compressing air in the cracks
Eroded particles smash into each other
Coastlines can be concordant or
Discordant coastlines have -- bands of hard and soft rock
The movement of water up the beach
Headlands are eroded to create caves arches and
The wearing away of cliffs by sediment flung by breaking waves.
The force of the water in a river or sea, causing erosion.
Rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller, smoother and rounder particles.
A type of erosion and transportation when soluble particles are dissolved into the river.
Area of ocean or lake surface over which the wind blows in an essentially constant direction, thus generating waves.
The type of wave that has a stronger backwash than swash.
The type of wave that has a stronger swash than backwash.
The geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
The continual swash and backwash that transports material sideways along the coast.
A type of coastline with alternating bands of hard and soft rock.
The type of coastline that has the same type of rock along it's length.
Occurs when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face, and hydraulic action erodes the rock.
If a cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through to the other side to form this.
The tall column of rock left when an arch collapses.
Left after a stack collapses.
A low energy area, made up of eroded material that has been transported from elsewhere and deposited by the sea.
An extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea and is joined to the mainland at one end.
A spit that connects an island to the mainland.
Management of the coast that attempts to control natural processes such as erosion and longshore drift.
The breakdown of rock through the action of plants and animals.
The decomposition (or rotting) of rock caused by a chemical change within that rock.
The disintegration of rock into smaller pieces without any chemical change in the rock.
A type of weathering where water freezes inside the rock, then expands, causing pieces to break off.
Wegner's Hypothesis that the continents once formed part of a single landmass.
Identical fossils found in both South America and Western Africa.
Similarities in the coastlines of continents.
Ages and types of rocks in the coastal regions of separate continents matched.
Layers of debris from ancient glaciers on separate continents.
Undersea mountain chain that forms as magma rises and creates new sea floor as tectonic plates move apart.
Geological evidence suggest that Earth's magnetic field has not always pointed North.
The stripes in the sea floor illustrates Earth's alternating magnetic field.
Plates move away from each other.
Plates collide with each other.
Two plates slide past each other horizontally.
New sea floor forms as magma rises to Earth's surface and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge.
Another name for the crust and upper mantle.
As the lithosphere moves away from the mid-ocean ridge it cools and becomes denser. It begins to sub-duct, as the leading edge begins to sink it pulls the rest of the plate along behind it
A large continent that broke up into smaller continents.
The movement of water from a broken wave as it runs down the beach returning to the ocean
A large powerful storm wave that has a strong backwash
The movement of water in a wave as it breaks onto a beach.
A gentle backwash that leads to material being deposited on land
The main direction from which the wind blows.
land jutting out into the sea
The process of looking after a coast
A large pile of sand at the beach
When a cave erodes through to the other side of the headland
When sand is moved along a beach because of the prevailing wind
A fence like structure built from the beach out into the water to stop longshore drift
What is left when an arch collapses
What is left when a stack collapses
A wall of rocks to prevent coastal erosion
A section of the water that can quickly drag a swimmer out to sea
A small section of land that juts out into the sea
This can help bind sand together and prevent erosion
visitors to coastal areas are called this
What is the movement of waste from sources to its final destination?
What type of waste comes from farms?
What type of waste makes up 36% of solid waste?
Leachate is __________ from landfills composed of chemicals from garbage.
Where is solid waste disposed of?
Which gas is a mixture of methane and CO2?
Incineration deals with _________ combustion at high temperatures.
___________ is thermally processed in the absence of oxygen.
Gasification produces _________ and solid residue.
What type of diversion refers to collecting and processing items to make new products?
_________ decreases the amount of organic waste that enters landfills.
What are any materials rinsed down a drain or flushed down a toilet called?
Septic systems are usually used in what area?
How many steps does the municipal sewage treatment have?
What is the first step in the process of recycling?
A layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core.
The name if young German scientist who was curious about the relationship of the continents.
The name of the single continent that broke apart 200 million years ago.
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earths surface
A layer of hot solid material between the crust and the core.
The layer of rock that forms earth's outer surface.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the Lithosphere floats.
The measure of how much mass there is in a volume substance.
Heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter.
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to each other.
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move towards each other.
The transfer of energy through an empty space.
The movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
A vibration that travels through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
A dense ball of solid metal.
A break in Earth's crust
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are constantly in motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
The name given to the lowest point of the wave
The name given to the highest point of a wave
The movement of water up the beach
The movement of water being dragged down the beach
The distance the wave has travelled
Waves with a low wave height, long wave period & strong swash
Waves with a high wave height, short wave period & weak swash
The movement of sediment down the coastline in a "zig-zag"
The movement of sediment downhill due to gravity
Fragments of rock breaking off cliffs and falling
Blocks of rock sliding downhill
Saturated soil moving along a curved line of failure
Breakdown & removal of rock
Breakdown of rock "in situ"
Material being carried by waves colliding and becoming smaller, smoother, rounder
Sediment being thrown against the cliff face
The sheer force of water againsr the rocks. It enters the cracks and causes a mini explosion
The disintegration of rocks, building materials, etc., caused by chemical reactions
the process by which various natural agents, as wind and water, act upon exposed rock, causing it to disintegrate to sand and soil.
a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
The point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocentre or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates.
The severity of earthquake shaking is assessed using a descriptive scale – the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
An area on the margins of tectonic plates where seismic, volcanic, and tectonic activity takes place as a consequence of the relative motion of the plates.
The point in the earth where the earthquake rupture or fault movement actually occurred.
an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
A sudden movement of the ground that releases elastic energy stored in rocks and generates seismic waves.
a twelve-point scale for expressing the local intensity of an earthquake, ranging from I (virtually imperceptible) to XII (total destruction).
A thin zone of crushed rock separating blocks of the earth's crust.
A magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an earthquake.
The great size or extent of something. (size)
A nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
What describes large scale movements of the Earth's lithosphere?
The lithosphere is divided into...
Two plates collide they make...
When two plates move away from each other this is called...
A boundary at which two plates move past each other horizontally is called a...
What is the outermost rigid layer of Earth?
What is a layer of weak or soft mantle that is made of rock?
What is the strong lower part of the Earth's mantle?
What explains the age and magnetic patterns of sea floor rocks?
What is the outermost layer of Earth?
What is the movement of matter that results from differences in density?
What is located between the core and the crust?
What extends from below the mantle to the center of Earth?
What element makes up most of Earth's core?
What is the liquid layer of Earth's core?
What is dense and is in the center of Earth and extends from the bottom of the outer core to the center of Earth?
What are the huge trenches on Earth's seafloor?
What pushes the rest of a plate away from the mid-ocean ridge?
What is the portion of motion of a tectonic plate that can be accounted for b the portion of motion of a tectonic plate that can be accounted for by its subduction?
What is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface?