a person who strongly favors doing away with slavery
abolitionist
an addition to the Constitution
amendment
a storage place for weapons and ammunition
arsenal
a production system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again
assemblyline
to absorb a group into the culture of a larger population
assimilate
laws passed in the South after the Civil War aimed at controlling freedmen
blackcodes
cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out
blockade
a community experiencing a sudden growth in population
boomtown
the states between the North and the South that were divided over whether to stay in the Union or join the Confederacy
borderstates
a group of advisers to the president
cabinet
an artificial waterway
canal
farm crop raised to be sold for money
cashcrop
official count of a population
census
the system in which each branch of government has a check on the other two branches so that no one branch becomes too powerful
checksandbalances
conflict between opposing groups of citizens of the same country
civilwar
discussion between an employer and union representatives of workers over wages, hours, and working conditions
collectivebargaining
sturdy vehicle topped with white canvas and used by pioneers to move west
conestogawagon
a formal plan of government
constitution
dishonest or illegal actions
corruption
a machine that removed seeds from cotton fiber
cottongin
the selection of persons for military service
draft
a person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
emigrant
the branch of government headed by the president
executivebranch
an extreme shortage of food
famine
people who went to California during the gold rush
fortyniners
former mining town that became deserted
ghosttown
the name associated with America in the late 1800s, referring to the extravagant wealth of a few and the terrible poverty that lay underneath
gildedage
a clause that allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction
grandfatherclause
a continuous rise in the price of goods
inflation
uniform pieces of that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces
interchangeableparts