A monotheistic major world religion, founded by the prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century.
Islam
Someone who follows/practices Islam. It means “one who surrenders to God,” which means they accept submission to Allah.
Muslim
The founder and teacher of Islam. He was a prophet and God’s messenger. He was born in 570 in Mecca, as a member of the tribe Quraysh and the clan of Hashim.
MUHAMMAD
The belief in the existence of only one God. Allah is the one God that is worshipped in the religion of Islam. Islam is a widely practiced form of __________.
MONOTHEISM
A person who speaks for God. Muslims believe that they received a special mission from God to guide humanity. The Qur’an identifies Muhammad as a _______.
PROPHET
A city in western Saudi Arabia. It is the holiest city of Islam, because it is the birthplace of Muhammad, and Islam itself. Muslims turn towards this city five times a day in prayer. Only Muslims are allowed to enter the city, and almost all Muslims travel to this city on a pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime.
MECCA
A building that serves as a shrine to God in the Great Mosque in Mecca. It is considered to be the most sacred site for Muslims. It is a cube-shaped structure that is about 50 feet tall. During most of the year, it is covered with a huge black cloth called the kiswah.
KA'BAH
A city in western Saudi Arabia. There’s a major Islamic pilgrimage site in the city, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi. It’s home to the Green Dome, that’s built over the tombs of Muhammad, and caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar. The city was previously known as Yathrib, and Muhammad made a famous migration to this city in 622.
MEDINA
The name of the journey that Muhammad and his followers made from Mecca to Medina in 622 in order to escape persecution. The year of this journey is the first year of the Muslim calendar. In 639, Caliph Umar introduced the ______ era, now written as AH.
HIJRAH
The daughter and only child of Muhammad and Khadijah. She was born in 604 AD in Mecca, and died in 632 AD in Medina. She was also called al-Zahra, which means “Shining One” in Arabic.
FATIMA
The central religious holy book of Islam, that Muslims believe to be a revelation from God, revealed by angel Gabriel to Muhammad. It means recitation in Arabic. It is divided into 114 chapters called “surahs.”
QUR'AN
The verbally transferred record of the teachings, deeds, and sayings of Muhammad. It also includes various reports of Muhammad’s companions. In Arabic, it means “habitual practice.” It’s a major source of Shari’ah, or Islamic law.
SUNNAH
A political-religious state under the leadership of an Islamic leader, or caliph. It includes the Muslim community and the lands and people under its control in the centuries after Muhammad’s death. The empire of the _________ included most of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Spain at its height, and it fell in the mid-13th century.
CALIPHATE
A region in the southwest corner of Asia. It’s also called Jazīrat Al-ʿArab, which means “Island of the Arabs” in Arabic. It is the birthplace of Islam, which was introduced to this land in the 7th century. 95% of the population in the _______ _________ is Muslim.
ARABIANPENINSULA
The dynasty of the ________ was the first great Muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the caliphate. It’s sometimes referred to as the Arab kingdom. They were a clan of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, and their leader was Abu Sufyan.
UMAYYADS
He was born in 602 in Mecca and died in 680 in Damascus. He was an early Islamic leader, and founder of the great Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. He restored unity to the Muslim empire and made Damascus its capital. He ruled from 661 to 680.
MU'AWIYAH
One of the two major branches of Islam. It consists of the majority of Muslims. They recognize the first four caliphs as Muhammad’s rightful successors. The rift between the _______ and the Shi’ite still lasts to this day.
SUNNIS
One of the two major branches of Islam. It consists of a minority of Muslims. They believe that Muslim leadership belonged to Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, and his other descendants only, not all four caliphs. The rift between the _______ and the Sunnis still lasts to this day.
SHI'ITE
This battle is also called Battle of Poitiers. It was fought in October 732, and Charles Martel, ruler of the Frankish kingdoms, defeated Muslim invaders from Spain. It was one of the most significant military battles in history because Martel’s victory prevented Muslim conquest and Islamization of Western Europe.
BATTLEOFTOURS
It’s an Arabic term that means “struggle,” or “battle.” It represents the spiritual, internal struggle that Muslims undergo to become closer to God. A small percentage of Muslims use ______ to justify acts of violence and terrorism.
JIHAD
It’s Islamic law, the fundamental religious concept of Islam. It was systemized during the 8th and 9th century, during the Muslim era. It relies heavily on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
SHARI'AH
The first pillar of Islam. It’s the Muslim profession of faith. “There is no god but Allah” and “Muhammad is the prophet of Allah.” It must be recited aloud by every Muslim at least once in their lifetime, with a full understanding of its meaning.
SHAHADAH
The second pillar of Islam. It’s the daily ritual prayer that all Muslims are required to perform. Muhammad observed the five ritual prayers: salat al-fajr(dawn), az-zuhr(midday), al-asr(afternoon), al-maghrib(sunset), and al-isha(evening).
SALAT
The third pillar of Islam. It means “purification.” It is charity, or the wealthy giving food/riches to the poor and needy. It is required for Muslims to share at least 2.5% of their wealth with the needy.
ZAKAT
The fourth pillar of Islam. It’s fasting, or not eating or drinking during daylight hours. It is mentioned in the Qur’an. “O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you, as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may learn self-restraint." (Quran 2:183)
SIYAM
The fifth pillar of Islam. It’s the annual Islamic pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Every capable adult Muslim is required to make this pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime. The pilgrimage rite starts on the 7th day of Dhu al-Hijjah (the last month of the Islamic year) and ends on the 12th day.
HAJJ
It’s an Arabic word that means “community.” or “people group.” It’s the collective Islamic community of Muslims. A nation is a political concept, while but citizenship in the ______ mostly involves commitment to a certain religion.
UMMAH
A Southeast Asian country made up of thousands of volcanic islands. It is the country with the largest Muslim population, with about 13% of the world’s Muslims, which is over 200 million Muslims. About 87% of the population of __________ is Muslim.
INDONESIA
It’s a record of the words, actions, and habits of Muhammad. It’s a major source of religious law and moral guidance for Muslims. The term is derived from an Arabic root, and it means “account” or “report.” The Sunnah came from the _______.
HADITH
It’s the Arabic word meaning “God.” He is the one and only God in Islam. In Islamic theology, ______ is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator and sustainer of the universe, as well as the judge of humankind.
ALLAH
A place of worship for followers of Islam. There are two main types, the large, state-controlled ones, and the smaller ones, operated privately. They are the center of community worship.
MOSQUE
The official who stands on the minaret of a mosque and proclaims the call to prayer for the public worship five times a day. The term means “crier.” They cry, “Allah is most great. I testify that there is no God but Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah. Come to prayer. Come to salvation. Allah is most great. There is no God but Allah.”
MUEZZIN
The term means “leader.” They give the sermon from a raised pulpit called the minbar. They can lead an Islamic prayer service in a mosque, serve as a community leader, or provide religious guidance.
IMAM
The direction of the sacred shrine of the Ka’bah in Mecca. Muslims face this direction while praying five times a day, or performing the salat. In a mosque, a semicircle on the wall, called a niche, indicates the _______.
QIBLAH
The ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is the month in which Muslims observe the fourth pillar of Islam, siyam, or fasting. _______ begins and ends with the appearance of the new moon. In Islamic tradition, one of the last nights of this month, “The Night of Power,” is the night on which God was revealed to the prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel.
RAMADAN
A Middle Eastern city, capital of Israel. It has been a Holy city to not only Muslims, but also Christians and Jews for thousands of years. It is considered to be the 3rd holiest cities for Muslims, after Mecca and Medina, because according to Islamic tradition, it is where Muhammad went on the Night Journey, met God, and ascended to heaven.
JERUSALEM
The judge of a Shari’ah court. They make decisions according to Shari’ah. They hear only religious cases, such as inheritance, marriage, divorce, etc. The ruling of the _____ was final in these situations.
QADI
An Islamic scholar who interprets and explains Islamic law. They have legal authority and can give a formal legal opinion, or fatwa, in court, as an answer to an inquiry by a judge.
MUFTI
The spread of cultural beliefs, social activities, ideas and ways of life, and other cultural elements from one group of people to another. It occurs as different societies interact through trade, travel, and conflict. Because Islamic lands were located at the crossroads of medieval trade routes through 3 different continents, _______ _________ occured.
CULTURALDIFFUSION
One of the greatest dynasties of the Muslim empire of the caliphate. It overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in 750 and reigned until the Mongol invasion in 1258. Under the ________ ________, the caliphate expanded eastward, instead of westward like under the Umayyad dynasty. The capital was moved to Baghdad. ABBASID
ABBASIDDYNASTY
Military expeditions beginning in the late 11th century. They were organized by western European Christians in response to Muslim wars of expansion. Their objectives were to retake control of the Holy Land in the eastern Mediterranean, stop the spread of Islam, and to recapture formerly Christian territories. Many participants saw them as a means of redemption for sins. There were three main _________, only one of which was majorly successful.
CRUSADES
Refers to what is permitted or lawful in traditional Islamic law.The term is used in the Qur’an, along with the term haram, to designate what is allowed and what is forbidden. They are commonly used in relation to food. For example, most seafood is _______.
HALAL
Refers to what is forbidden or unlawful in traditional Islamic law. It is the opposite of halal. The term is used in the Qur’an, along with the term halal, to designate what is allowed and what is forbidden. They are commonly used in relation to food. For example, pork, gelatine, and alcohol are all _______.
HARAM
Also known as Avicenna, he was a Persian Muslim physician, and one of the most famous and influential philosophers of the medieval Islamic world. He wrote The Book of the Cure, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which is one of the most famous medical books in history.
IBNSINA
Also called A Thousand and One Nights, it’s a famous collection of Middle Eastern and Indian stories. The tales of Aladdin, Ali Baba, and Sinbad the Sailor have nearly become a part of Western folklore. In the book, a wife tells her husband a new story each night to avoid execution. The stories take place in China, India, Egypt, and many Muslim cities.
ARABIANNIGHTS
Mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through intense direct personal experience of God. It’s also called Islamic mysticism.
SUFISM
A type of design that is characterized by intertwining plants in repeating elegant patterns. It originally included birds and other animals, but when it was adapted by Muslims around 1000, no birds or other animals were included because depiction of living things is forbidden in the Qur’an. ________ is an essential part of the decorative tradition of Islamic culture.
ARABESQUE
The art of beautiful handwriting. It’s the highest form of decorative art for Muslims. _________ was used to copy the Qur’an and decorate everyday items, such as coins, pottery, tiles, and swords. Arabic is written from right to left, and consists of 17 characters, which, with the addition of dots placed above or below certain characters, make the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet.
CALLIGRAPHY
The supreme ruler of a Muslim state. It’s derived from an Arabic term meaning “authority” or “power.”
SULTAN
Nomadic people from China, whose leader was Genghis Khan. They started their wars of conquest in the 13th century, and attacked much of Central Asia, where they destroyed cities, killed hundreds of thousands of Muslims, and enslaved many others. They built a vast empire that stretched across Asia.
MONGOLS