founder of the science of genetics
Mendel
vegetable that Mendel used to discover how cross pollination works
Peas
fertilization of an ovum of a plant by a male gamete from the same flower
self fertilization
the transfer of pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of a plant having a different genetic constitution
cross pollination
the enlarged lower part of the pistil in angiospermous plants, enclosing the ovules or young seeds
ovary
the fertilizing element of flowering plants, consisting of fine, powdery, yellowish grains or spores, sometimes in masses
pollen
the first generation of offspring from a certain set of parents
F1
offspring resulting from a cross of the members of F1 generation
F2
of or relating to an animal, all of whose ancestors derive over many generations from a recognized breed
Pure bred
the one of a pair of alternative alleles that masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or organism
dominant
that one of a pair of alternative alleles whose effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the same cell or organism
recessive
having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics
homozygous
having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic
heterozygous
any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation
allele
the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits
genotype
the observable constitution of an organism
phenotype
the principle, originated by Gregor Mendel, stating that during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent
law of segregation
a type of grid used to show the gametes of each parent and their possible offspring
punnett square
a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
antigens
blood groups that are genetically inherited
Rh
the pollen-bearing organ of a flower, consisting of the filament and the anther
stamen
a small platelike body
platelets
red blood cell
erythrocytes
liquid inside the cytoplasm
plasma
white blood cell
leukocytes
Y-shaped protein molecules produced by B cells
antibodies