____ centers in the hypothalamus are stimulated by dry mucous membranes, drop in blood volume and increase in serum osmolallity
Thirst
This hormone produced in the hypothalamus is released in responce to low blood volume or increased serum osmolality and stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys.
ADH
A fluid volume deficit that results in decreased body fluid
Dehydration
A characteristic of the tongue appearance in a dehydrated adult
Longitudinal Furrows
1Kg=1 of these of fluid
Liter
The main goal in dehydration is this
Fluid replacement
A solution with a solute concentration equal to the osmolarity of normal body fluids
Isotonic
This solution is given to most dehydrated patients in the hospital, it is isotonic.
Normal Saline
These IV solutions are large molecules that can't leak through capillary membranes.
Colloids
Given to patients with debilitating illness lasting longer than 2 weeks, have a loss of 10% or more of preillness wt or nonfunctioning GI tract
TPN
Used for short term IV therapy through a vein in the arm or hand
Peripheral line
An inflammation of the vein as a complication of IV therapy resulting in a cord-like vein, redness and swelling around the site.
Phlebitis
An infiltration of a vesicant drug
Extravasation
Too rapid of an infusion of IV fluids or meds can result in this which leads to flushing of the skin, dizziness, irregular pulses and severe headache
Speed shock
A high loop diuretic that blocks reabsorption of sodium and chloride preventing passive reabsorption of water
Lasix
These diuretics promote urine production by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the early seg of the distal convoluted tubule
Thiazide
This diuretic uses osmotic force in the nephron that inhibits reabsorption of water, used mostly in Critical Care.
Mannitol
This electrolyte imbalance results in an inverted T wave on the EKG, lethargy, confusion, leg cramps, generalized weakness and polyuria.
Hypokalemia
This electrolyte imbalance results in abdominal cramping, peaked T wave on EKG, diarrhea, irritability and muscle weakness.
Hyperkalemia
This electrolyte imbalance results in skin flushing, agitation, lethargy, tachycardia, thirst, hypertension and orthostatic hypotension
Hypernatremia
This electrolyte imbalance results in brittle nails, dry skin and hair, cardiac arrythmias, muscle cramps, tetany or fractures
Hypocalcemia
This electrolyte imbalace results in depressed reflexes, weak pulses, bradycardia, warm flushed skin, weakness, drowsiness, hypotension and diaphoresis.
Hypermagnesemia
This blood test measures the past three months of blood glucose levels, higher than 6 indicates diabetes.
HbgA1C
A condition in Type 1 diabetes that results in a high blood sugar of >250 but less than 800, fruity breath, kussmauls respirations, N/V, keytones in urine, hypokalemia and a ph of <7.38
DKA
_______syndrome is a precursor to DM that is a chronic inflammatory process leading to plaque formation in vessels. Signs include low HDL levels, change in LDL, hypertension, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance.
Metabolic
Fasting glucose level is high in the morning as a result of stress hormones
Somogyi effect
Morning sugar is elevated as a result of liver converting glycogen to glucose in type 2 diabetes.
Dawn Phenomenon
Symptoms include thirst, dry mouth, hunger, fatigue, difficulty concentrating
Hyperglycemia

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