Type
Crossword
Description

What research paradigm is based on the pragmatic view of reality? mixed
What is the opposite of a variable? constant
The strongest evidence for causality comes from which research method? experimental
An integrated statement of and justification for the technical decisions involved in planning a research project research design
Data that is typically descriptive qualitative
Data that can be measured quantatitive
What form of data is collected in empirical research? primary
Research with no prior knowledge exploratory
Avoids metaphysical concepts e.g. truth, reality pragmatism
Research that describes what is happening descriptive
Research that describes the relationship between variables explanatory
What type of research forecasts future phenomena? predictive
What type of research uses findings from existing works? theoretical
The quality of being logically and factually sound validity
This refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test reliabilty
The extent of a relationship or associations between variables but the relationship is non-casual correlational
Casual relationships between two or more variables experimental
A quantitative way of collecting data that is not an interview questionnaire
The repeatability of a set of results reliability
What type of research provides the strongest evidence about cause and effect relationships? experimental

Nature Of Science Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

In science, (blank) can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments Observation
An (blank) is a logical interpretation based on what scientists observe. Inference
consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. Scientific Method
variables that the experimenter changes independent variable
variable being tested in a scientific experiment Dependent Variable
is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. control
an idea or explanation that you then test through study and experimentation. hypothesis
final process of the basic scientific method Conclusion
"a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses." analysis
which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Evidence
researcher subjectively gathers information that focuses more on the differences in quality than the differences in quantity, qualitative
of, relating to, or expressible in terms of quantity Quantitative

The Scientific Method Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

To group information into categories Classify
The variable that depends on other factors, also the variable that will be measured and affected during the experiment Dependent Variable
To examine carefully and in detail to identify Analyze
To observe carefully and in detail Examine
To make a conclusion based on reasoning and observations Infer
The action or process of examining something carefully in order to Observation
To name or recognize something based on its properties Identify
A standard to compare with the results in an experiment Control
The variables that the experimenter changes to test their dependent variable Independent Variable
A statement predicting the result of a controlled scientific experiment Hypothesis
The process used by scientists to solve problems Scientific Method
To determine the extent, quantity or dimensions Measure
The methodological studying of the natural world through experimentation and verification of facts Science
Evidence gathered through observations (especially during experiments) Data
The outcome or conclusion of an experiment after a period of time Result
Visual aids used by scientists to communicate results of an experiment Graphs
The collecting of information on a particular subject Research
A feature of the experiment that does not change Constant
To form an idea as a result of the analysis of the data Formulate
A detailed series of steps to follow to perform an experiment Procedure
To write down in permanent form for later reference Record
To cause favoritism or influence to experimental results Bias
To repeat a research study, usually with different participants and in different situations, to confirm the results of the original study Replicate
A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis or demonstrate a known fact Experiment
What a scientist writes summarizing the results of an experiment Conclusion
To record observations, research and other information related to the experiment Journal
To notice similarities or differences Compare
Indicate in advance on the basis of observation, experience or scientific reason Predict
The first step in the scientific method is to define or identify the ________. Problems
Part of the experiment capable to change Variable

Scientific Inquiry Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

An ________ is a written explanation of the data shown in graphs. Analysis
A __________ is a written statement explaining the data analysis and whether the results support the hypothesis or not. Conclusion
In an experiment, the _____________ is observed under normal circumstances. Control Group
The ___________________ is measured during an experiment and is represented by the y axis on a graph. Dependent Variable
The ___________________ is changed during an experiment and is represented by the x axis on a graph. Independent Variable
In an experiment, the __________________ contains the independent and dependent variables. Experimental Group
A __________ is a prediction of what you believe will occur in your experiment formatted as a specific "if... then..." statement. Hypothesis
An _________ is a conclusion based on observations. Inference
A ___ is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe. Law
A _________ is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe. Principle
An ___________ is a statement based on the senses such as taste, smell, or sight. Observation
___________ is the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field. Peer Review
Data describing observations through subjective values is ___________. Qualitative
Data describing observations through specific measurements is ___________. Quantitative
The _________________ is a set of steps that scientists use to collect information and answer questions. Scientific Method
A ______ is the best explanation for a natural phenomena that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation. theory

Unit 1 Vocabulary Review Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

An event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled in order to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experiment. Variable
A term used to describe the certainty of data or results of an investigation or experiment. Valid
Multiple sets of measurements or observations in a scientific investigation. Trials
An explanation for some naturally occurring event developed from extensive Theory
A term used to describe a question that can be answered through an experiment or observation. Testable
The variable manipulated by the experimenter in order to study changes in the outcome variable. TestVariable
Observations obtained by following a preplanned method of observation. systematic
The reproduction of a scientific investigation by another person to ensure accuracy. replication
Making multiple sets of measurements or observations in a scientific investigation repetitions
To state what one thinks will happen under certain conditions based on data or observation predict
A factor, usually being measured or observed, that responds to, or depends on, another factor (test variable). outcomevariable
Information about the natural world gathered through the senses and/or scientific instruments. observation
A replica or description designed to show the workings or structure of an object or system. model
A scientific principle based on many observations of naturally occurring events that demonstrate it to be without exception under certain stated conditions. See also theory. Law
An organized scientific study of the natural world that may include making systematic observations, asking questions, gathering information, analyzing data, summarizing results, drawing conclusions, and/or communicating results. Investigation
An explanation based on evidence that is not directly observed Inference
A statement that can be tested scientifically through experiments and/or other scientific investigations. hypothesis
A scientific test or procedure that is carried out under controlled conditions to answer a scientific question. experiment
Evidence based on observations or experiments rather than theory. empiricalevidence
Measurements or observations collected and recorded in an experiment or investigation data
A factor or condition in a scientific experiment that is purposefully kept the same. controlledvariable
A group in a scientific experiment that serves as a reference for comparison to the experimental group; a group that is untreated by the factor being tested. controlgroup
A statement that tells what an investigation showed, based on observations and data. conclusion
To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelatedness. Analyze

chapter 1: The Nature of Science Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis data
a sample that is treated like other experimental groups except that is the independent variable is not applied to it. control
Prediction or statement that can be tested and may be formed by prior knowledge, any previous observations, and new information. hypothesis
facts, information, or ideas for use in creating a book or other work. materials
a judgment or decision reached by reasoning. conclusion
Used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. experimental research
purpose, planning, or intention that exists or is thought to exist behind an action, fact, or material object. design
a room or building equipped for scientific experiments, research, or teaching, or for the manufacture of drugs or chemicals. laboratories
Factor that is being measured during an experiment. dependent variable
an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program. computer
Process used to investigate what is happening around us in order to solve problems or answer questions; part of everyday life. science
Answers scientific questions through observation. descriptive research
discover or reveal (something) through detailed examination analyze
Ways to solve problems that can include step-by-step plans, making models, and carefully through-out experiments. scientific method
Variable that stays the same during an experiment. constants
the size, length, or amount of something, as established by measuring. measurements
a device or implement, especially one held in the hand, used to carry out a particular function. tools
a test of the performance, qualities, or suitability of someone or something. trials
A variable that can be changed during a experiment. independent variable
A set of controlled steps carried out to discover, test, or demonstrate. experiment

Psych 1010 Ch 2:Research Methods in Psychology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A characteristic that changes between individuals, such as gender, age, intelligence, weight) Variable
A study design in which a psychologist or therapist observes one person over a long period of time Case study
An observational study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world naturalistic
A research sample that accuratel reflects the population of people one is studying Representative
A study which does not show causation, but does measure 2 or more variables and their relationship with one another correlational
A research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion meta-analysis
(2 words seperated by a space)A measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables or the extent of an experimental effect effect size
In an experiment, the outcome or response to an experimental manipulation dependent variable
A variable that is manipulated by an experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it is caused by the predicted outcome of an experiment independent
A variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being manipulated confounding
A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance placebo
The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being in any specific group random
A group of research participants who are treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment. control
A study ub which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group double-blind
An explanation of the purposes of the study following data collection debriefing
The score that separates the lower half of the scores from the upper half median
(2 words) A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean standard deviation
The most commonly occurring score or value mode
A plotted curve that shows a normal distribution of scores Bell
A statistic that compares two means to see whether they could come from the same population t-test
The arithmetic average of a series of numbers mean

Statistics Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis Data
Practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities Statistics
The entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn Population
Official count or survey of a population Census
A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like Sample
A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation Parameter
A fact or piece of data from a study of a large quantity of numerical data Statistic
Data expressing a certain quantity, amount or range Quantitative Data
Is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than Quantitative data Qualitative Data
Results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number Discrete
Results from infinitely many possible values that can be on a continuous scale without gaps or interruptions Continuous
Level if measurement of data; characterizes data that consists of names, labels ,or categories only. Nominal
Characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Ordinal
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, but differences between data values are meaningful Interval
Characterizes data that can be arranged in order, for which differences between data values are meaningful, and there is an inherent zero starting point. Ratio
Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but dont attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied Observational Study
Study in which data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time Cross Sectional Study
Longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determinehow these factors affect rates of certain outcome Prospective Study
Studies a cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor to determine its influence Retrospective Study
a variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and an independent variable. Confounding
The practice of keeping patients in the dark as to whether they are receiving a placebo or not. Blinding
noun: placebo effect; plural noun: placebo effects a beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment. Placebo Effect
denoting a test or trial, especially of a drug, in which any information that may influence the behavior of the tester or the subject is withheld until after the test. Double Blind
With a randomized block design, the experimenter divides subjects into subgroups called blocks, such that the variability within blocks is less than the variability between blocks. Then, subjects within each block are randomly assigned to treatment conditions. Blocks
the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. Replication
type of probability sampling method in which sample members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Systematic Sampling
One of the non-probability sampling methods Convenience Sampling
Type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into seperate groups, called strata Stratified Sampling
sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population Cluster Sampling
the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population Sampling Error
the deviations of estimates from their true values that are not a function of the sample chosen, including various systematic errors and random errors that are not due to sampling. Nonsampling Error
a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected has a predetermined probability of being selected Random Sample
subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. Simple Random Sample
Subjects that are very carefully chosen Rigorously Controlled Design
subjects are put into blocks through a process of random selection Completely Randomized Design

Research Terms Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A prediction drawn from a theory hypothesis
When an investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response. structured observations
When a observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period. event sampling
The effects of the observer on the behavior studied. observer influence
When observers are aware of the purposes of a study, they may see and record what they expect to see rather than what participants actually do. observer bias
Measures the relationship between nervous system processes and behavior neurobiological methods
Brings together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes neurobiological measures. case study
A descriptive, qualitative technique directed at understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation ethnography
researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natu- ral life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development. correlational design
Type of research that permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treat- ment conditions. experimental design
Type of variable that the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable. independent
The type of variable that the one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable. dependent
When participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older. longitudinal design

Nature of science vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

personal preference that is personal rather than scientific Bias
The branch of science that is concerned with living things Biology
The group in an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for the independent variable Control group
An experiment in which variables are carefully controlled so that scientist can you tell which variable is the responsible for the results Controlled experiment
Information that is gathered during experimentation and careful observation Data
A molecule processed by all living things so that they may live grow and reproduce DNA
The variable in an experiment that is observed in response to the independent variable Dependant variable
The group in an experiment that is expose the change of the independent variable Experimental group
A relatively stable internal environment to organisms must maintain even when the external environment is changing Homeostasis
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it Hypothesis
The variable in an experiment that is deliberately changed Independent variable
A logical interpretation based on what scientist already know Inference
The combination of chemical reaction though which an organism builds up or breaks down materials Metabolism
The act of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful orderly way Observation
A process that occurs so that organisms can produce new organisms Reproduction
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world Science
A signal to which an organism responds Stimulus
A well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypothesis Theory
A well tested description of how something in nature works Law

Qualitative Data Analysis Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

In descriptive studies, qualitative _______analysis is often described as a content analysis. DATA
In ethnographies, a broad unit of cultural knowledge DOMAIN
Before analysis can begin, qualitative researchers have to develop a coding _________. SCHEME
All of a phenomenologist's transcribed interviews would comprise a qualitative data _______. SET
Type of analyses that is more difficult to do. QUALITATIVE
Type of findings that are easier to understand. QUANTITATIVE
A piece of information obtained in a study. DATUM
Written documentation describing definitions of categories used to code data. CODEBOOK
Principle involved in looking for units of information with similar meanings. SIMILARITY
Recurring regularity emerging during analysis of qualitative data. THEME
A figurative comparison to evoke a visual analogy. METAPHOR
Focuses on the culture of a group of people. ETHNOGRAPHY
Research that focuses on the lived experience of humans. PHENOMENOLOGY
Data collection method in which questions are asked of a respondent. INTERVIEW
Process of identifying and indexing recurring themes within data. CODING
An abstraction inferred from observations of behavior. CONCEPT
System of classifying and organizing terms. TAXONOMY
Type of data analysis examining relationships among terms in the domains using Spradley’s method. COMPONENTIAL
Process of living the data to understand meanings and draw insightful conclusions. INCUBATION
A preliminary guide for sorting narrative data. TEMPLATE
Grounded theorists document an idea in an analytic ________. MEMO