Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Fragmented, membrane-bound bodies package cell contents Apoptosis
Enzymes leak from lysosomes and digest cellular contents; local inflammatory response necrosis
These cannot be replaced to the extent that myocardial infarction occurs myocytes
This binds to CDK4 and CDK6, causing them to phosphorylate retinoblastoma protein CyclinD
G1, S and G2 are the phases of this Interphase
A deficiency in this protein can lead to cancer, following DNA damage P53
This is the result of impaired vascular perfusion, resulting in loss of nutrients (mainly oxygen) Ischaemia
Necrosis of tissue, following ischaemia Infarction
These proteins induce or inhibit apoptosis, and control apoptosis by regulating the permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability bcl2
Binding of a ligand to this will induce apoptosis Fas
Mitochondrial inner membranes are loosely bound to this, which is released during apoptosis in order to activate caspase enzymes cytochromec

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Cell Communication Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Signaltransductionpathway
A system of stimuli and response correlated to population density Quorum Sensing
A form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells Paracrine
A release of hormones that act on distant target cells in the body Endocrine
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal Synaptic
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Hormone
When the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to receptor protein Reception
The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector Transduction
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus Response
Usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein Ligand
Act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior GProtein
Constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses Gproteincoupledreceptor
Guanine Triphosphate GTP
Guanine Diphosphate GDP
Refers to the reversible transition of a molecule into a nearly identical chemical or physical state Activated
High-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors RTKs
A phosphate group is added Phosphorylation
They pass the message to the next signaling component in the chain without otherwise participating Relay Protein
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger Ligandgatedionchannel
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them Protein Kinase
A phosphate group is taken away Dephosphorylation
A sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins Phosphorylation cascade
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein Protein Phosphatases
A molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination where an action within the cell is to take place second messengers
A secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells IP3
A glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages DAG
A mechanism leading to multiple copies of a chromosomal region within a chromosome arm Amplification
Interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes Scaffolding Proteins
A process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms Apoptosis
Protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell Blebbing

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Cellular Communication Vocabulary Crossword Match the word to the definition.

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction. Amplification
Convert (a substance, molecule, etc.) into a reactive form. Activated
The bulging out of a part of a cell below the plasma membrane or expansion of air-filled tissue, as occurs in the lungs in bullous emphysema. Blebbing
Process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis
A common biochemical process in which a phosphate group is removed from an organic compound through hydrolysis. Dephosphorylation
Occurs when endocrine cells release hormones that act on distant target cells in the body. Endocrine signaling
Monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. G Protein
Seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. G Protein Coupled Receptor
Generated by one of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle. GTP
A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Hormone
Substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Ligand
Ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger, such as a neurotransmitter. Ligand-gated ion channel
Form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Paracrine signaling
The transferring of phosphoryl group from a donor to the recipient molecule. Phosphorylation
Sequence of events where one enzyme phosphorylates another, causing a chain reaction leading to the phosphorylation of thousands of proteins. Phosphorylation Cascade
Kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Protein Kinase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein Phosphatases
System of stimuli and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing
Target cell's detection of a signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Reception
Any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. Reponse
The high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Scaffolding Proteins
Similar to paracrine signaling but there is a special structure called the synapse between the cell originating and the cell receiving the signal. Synaptic signaling
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. Signal Transduction Pathway
Molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus. Second messengers
Process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector. Transduction
Can control different processes in the cell including the cell cycle. Relay Protein
Messenger of neurologic information from one cell to another. Neurotransmitter

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Cell Organelles Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

This is the most outer lighting of the cell and it encloses all of the other cell organelles cellmembrane
This is a rigid layer that surrounds the plant cells. It is located on the outside of the cell membrane. cellwall
What is the fluid substance that fills the cell cytoplasm
This is a membrane bound organelle, and round in shape. most of the cells activities are directed by this nucleus
Darkly stained, is in the nucleus, and it aids in protein formation and RNA synthesis nucleolus
A porous double membrane layer surrounding the nucleus. nuclearmembrane
The semi-fluid inside the nucleus, contains genetic information and the nucleolus nucleoplasm
One of the largest organs of the cell, also known as the powerhouse of the cell mitochondria
They are found in the endoplasmic reticulum. The aid in the help of manufacturing proteins for the cell Ribosomes
Membrane bound organelles containing digestive enzymes. They break down waste products and detoxify the cell. lysosomes
small body located near the nucleus, centrioles are made here centrosome
a large network of interconnecting membrane tunnels. can sometimes be covered in ribsosmes to give it a "rough" appearance endoplasmicreticulum
Flattened stacks of membrane bound sacs. They function as a packaging unit golgiapparatus
These are organelles for storage. In plant cells they perform fuctions of secretion, excretion and storage Vacuoles
an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll chloroplasts
Contains odiative enzymes, and helps with lipid destruction peroxisome
Hair like structures cilia
a network of fibers made of micro-tubule and micro-filament, give support and maintains shape of cell. cytoskeleton
microscopic channels which traverse plant cell walls and enables transport and communication plasmodesmata
Storage organelles, store starch for synthesis of fatty acids and terpenes plastids

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Metabolism Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

a metabolic reaction that converts biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP cellular respiration
ions moving through selectively permeable membrane down the electrochemical gradient chemiosmosis
a green pigment that absorbs light that provides energy for photosynthesis chlorophyll
in biochemistry what binds an effector molecule as a site allosteric regulation
process where the quaternary structure, teritiary structure, and secondary structure are loss by proteins denaturation
a process that changes sugar into gases, alcohol, and acids which occur in bacteria Fermentation
series of chemical reactions occuring within a cell in within a cell in which an initial chemical reactions; enzymes catalyze these reactions Metabolic pathway
a energy transformation in a group of matter thermodynamics
energy needed distort reactant molecules so bonds can break activation energy
a open space on the surface of an enzyme and is also where catalysis occurs active site
a loosely bounded cofactor to enzyme coenzyme
a non-protein helpers for catalytic activity that commonly bind to enzymes cofactors
a system that can not exchange either energy or matter with surroundings isolated system
energy matter that possess because of location or structure; energy that hasn't yet been used potential energy
energy and matter can be transferred between system and surroundings open system
potential energy available for release in chemical reaction chemical energy
consume energy to build complicated molecules to simper ones; biosynthetic pathways anabolic pathways
reactant that enzyme acts on substrate
loss of electrons from one substance oxidation
oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel aerobic respiration

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Cell Organelles Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life cell
The lipid bilayr that forms the outer boundary of the cell Cell Membrane
A rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants and most bacteria Cell wall
A jelly-like substance that hold the cell organelles together Cytoplasm
Known as the "skeleton" of the cell; network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps support the cell Cytoskeleton
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell Golgi apparatus
Powerhouse of the cell; produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar (cellular respiration) Mitochondria
An organelle containing digestive enzymes Lysosomes
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus Nucleolus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell Nucleus
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins Ribosome
Stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells Vacuole
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell Vesicle
An internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed Endoplasmic Reticulum
whip-like tails found in one-celled organisms to aid movement Flagella
One of several bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytosol of the cell; small organs Organelle
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus in the cell Nuclear envelope

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Cells Answer Key Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

The basic building blocks of all living things. Cell
A group of similar cells that live and work together Tissues
A collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Organ
A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Organ System
An individual life form. Organism
Surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and gives the cell structure and support. Cell Membrane
A gel-like substance inside the cell that contains all the cell parts and organelles. Cytoplasm
A group of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function or functions. Organelles
Molecules that contain all the genetic material and traits for each organism. DNA
Molecules are single stranded nucleic acids composed of nucleotides. RNA
A type of plastid that contains chlorophyll which is where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplast
An organelle that modifies,sorts,and packs molecules and stores or sends it when needed. Golgi Complex
Often known as the "powerhouses" of the cell, this organelle generates energy for the cell through cellular respiration.​This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy. Mitochondria
An organelle in both plant and animal cells that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, protection, and growth. Vacuole
Sacs of enzymes that digest food, water, and waste Lysosomes
Extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER). Endoplasmic Reticulum
Tiny structures bound by a membrane that contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. Peroxisomes
The outermost covering of a cell that protects the cell and gives it shape & support. Cell Wall
Multicellular organism Eukaryote
Unicellular organism Prokaryote
Organisms made up of only one cell Unicellular Organisms
Organisms made up of two or more cells Multicellular Organisms
Chemical compound that contains carbon atoms. Organic Compound
Molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic info from one generation to the next. There are two types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. Nucleic Acid
Consisting of RNA and proteins, they are responsible for protein production and assembly. Ribosomes
A substance made entirely of one type of atom. Element
The smallest unit of a substance that maintains the properties of that substance. Atom
Membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and DNA. Also controls all of the cells activities. Nucleus
A membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleus in eukaryotic cells. Nuclear Membrane
A structure inside the cell nucleus that rewrites ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins, results in the formation of incomplete ribosomes. Nucleolus
Tubelike structures that aid in cell division and Celiogenesis, are generally are found close to the nucleus Centrioles
A theory that descibes the basic characteristics of all cells and organisms. It is one if the foundational ideas of modern biology Cell Theory

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Cell Transport Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

An organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change Homeostasis
Hydrophobic tails are facing inward and their hydrophilic heads are outward Phospholipid Bilayer
The movement of substances through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy Passive Transport
The movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Diffusion
The diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane Osmosis
When molecules pass through a cell membrane using special proteins called transport proteins Facilitated Diffusion
The movement of substances through a cell membrane only by using the cell's energy Active Transport
Cells energy ATP
The process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane Endocytosis
The process by which certain living cells called phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells or particles Phagocytosis
a process by which liquid droplets are ingested by living cells Pinocytosis
The process during which a cell’s vesicles releases their contents outside the cell Exocytosis
The maximum pressure that develops in a solution separated from a solvent by a membrane permeable only to the solvent Osmotic Pressure
Having a lower osmotic pressure than the surrounding environment is called Hypotonic
Having a higher osmotic pressure than the surrounding environment is called Hypertonic
Having equal osmotic pressure with the surrounding environment is called Isotonic

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BLOOD TRANSFUSION Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A PROCESS WHICH REMOVES ANTIBODY FROM PLASMA, TYPICALLY ONTO RED CELLS ADSORPTION
THE VISIBLE CLUMPING OF RED CELLS AS A RESULT OF ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY BINDING AGGLUTINATION
SECONDARY OR SUBSEQUENT IMMUNE RESPONSE ANAMNESTIC
IMMUNOGLOBULIN PRODUCED IN RESPONSE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF A FOREIGN ANTIGEN ANTIBODY
IMMUNOGLOBULIN THAT REACTS WITH HUMAN GLOBULINS AHG
COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED ANTIBODY PREPARATIONS TO BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS ANTISERA
ANAEMIA CAUSED BY THE PRODUCTION OF AUTOANTIBODIES AIHA
SEEDS FROM THIS PLANT PRODUCE A LECTIN WHICH REACTS WITH THE A1 ANTIGEN DOLICHOUS BIFLOROUS
A PROCESS WHICH RELEASES ANTIBODY THAT IS BOUND TO RED CELL ANTIGENS ELUTION
USED TO DETECT IN VIVO SENSITISATION DAT
A PROTEIN THAT ACTS AS A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST ENZYME
THIS IS THE PERIOD BETWEEN INFECTION WITH A PATHOGEN AND THE FIRST DETECTABLE MARKER IN A BLOOD TEST WINDOW
PRODUCES UP TO DATE EVIDENCED BASED GUIDELINES ON THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISEASE AND BLOOD TRANSFUSION BCSH
LITERALLY MEANING 'IN GLASS', THIS REFERS TO TESTS PERFORMED OUTSIDE OF THE BODY IN VITRO
DERIVED FROM A SINGLE GENETICALLY DISTINCT CELL MONOCLONAL
THE ENZYME PAPAIN IS DERIVED FROM THIS FRUIT PAPAYA
THE REPULSIVE FORCE CREATED BETWEEN ADJACENT RED CELLS AS A RESULT OF A CLOUD OF NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE IONS SURROUNDING THE RED CELL MEMBRANE ZETA POTENTIAL
THE OBSERVABLE EXPRESSION OF AN INDIVIDUALS GENES PHENOTYPE
THE PROPERTY OF AN ANTIGEN THAT ENABLES IT TO RECOGNISE AND COMBINE WITH ONE PARTICULAR ANTIGEN SPECIFICITY
ANY ADVERSE EFFECT IN A PATIENT FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF A BLOOD COMPONENT TRANSFUSION REACTION
RED CELLS COATED WITH, BUT NOT AGGLUTINATED BY, ANTIBODY ARE SAID TO BE THIS SENSITISED
A SOLUTION WHICH IS ISOTONIC WITH BLOOD AND CONTAINS NaCl NISS
AN ALTERNATIVE FORM OF A GENE THAT CAN OCCUPY A SINGLE LOCUS ON A CHROMOSOME ALLELE
A GENE WITH NO PHENOTYPIC EFFECT AMORPH
KNOWN INHERITABLE WEAKER EXPRESSION OF A BLOOD GROUP ANTIGEN SUBGROUP
A SUBSTANCE THAT PREVENTS BLOOD CLOTTING ANTICOAGULANT
THIS ORGANISATIONS CORE PURPOSE IS TO MEET THE TRANSFUSION NEEDS OF PATIENTS IN SCOTLAND SNBTS
THE FINAL PART OF THE PROCESS WHICH DETERMINES THE COMPATIBILITY OF DONOR RED CELLS WITH THE PATIENT CROSSMATCH
BLOOD COMPONENT PRODUCED AS A SOURCE OF FVIII AND FIBRINOGEN CRYOPRECIPITATE
THIS VIRUS, ASSOCIATED WITH WHITE CELLS, IS TRANSMISSABLE VIA BLOOD TRANSFUSION AND BELONGS TO THE HERPES FAMILY CMV
AN IMBALANCE IN NORMAL BLEEDING AND CLOTTING MECHANISMS WITH TYPICAL WIDESPREAD CLOTTING, FOLLOWED BY MAJOR HAEMORRHAGE AS CLOTTING FACTORS BECOME DEPLETED DIC
RUPTURE OF THE RED CELL MEMBRANE, FREEING HAEMOGLOBIN INTO CIRCULATION HAEMOLYSIS
NEONATAL RED CELL DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY MATERNAL ANTIBODIES HDN
ACCUMULATION OF EXCESS FLUID IN AT LEAST 2 FOETAL COMPARTMENTS HYDROPS FETALIS

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Cell Organelle Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own membrane. Little organs within the cell. Organelle
Shaped like a bean, this cell organelle helps take food and manufacture energy from it. It is known as the powerhouse of the cell. The energy it makes is ATP. Mitochondria
An elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. This is the site of photosynthesis. Chloroplast
The cell's "skeleton" of microtubules which gives it shape, strength, and the capacity for directed movement Cytoskeleton
The control center of the cell, it contains the hereditary information and carries the instructions for making proteins. Nucleus
The organelles where proteins are made from the translation of RNA strands. Ribosome
Jelly-like substance that makes up the matrix of the cell body. Cytoplasm
a double-layered membrane that surrounds the cell. Also called the plasma membrane, it regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Cell Membrane
known as the garbage men, contains digestive enzymes to breakdown worn out cell parts or destroy foreign invaders Lysosome
modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion. Golgi Body
membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as a site for protein and lipid synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum
found in fungi, plants, and bacteria. It surrounds the cell membrane and aids in support and structure of the cell. Cell Wall
They can be used to contain cellular waste, isolate materials that may be harmful to the cell, or hold water for plants. They are very versatile in their function Vacuoles

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Parts of a Cell Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others. Cell membrane
A small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome. Centosome
the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located. cytoplasm
a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell. Golgi body
round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place. lysosomes
spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. mitochondrion
the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. nuclear membrane
an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus. nucleolus
spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane. nucleus
small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis. ribosomes
(rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). endoplasmic reticulum
fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell. vacuole

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