To cut food into small, uneven pieces.
CHOP
To cut food into very fine, uneven pieces.
MINCE
To cut food into small, equal size squares about ½ inch in size.
CUBE
To cut food into small, equal size squares about ¼ to 1/8 inch in size.
DICE
To reduce food into small pieces by pressing and rubbing it against the “teeth” of a grater.
GRATE
To cut or break food into long, thin strips by using a knife, fork, or grater.
SHRED
To remove the stem and the very thin layer of peel of a fruit or vegetable with a paring knife or peeler.
PARE
To remove the outer layer/skin, by stripping or pulling off with your fingers or a knife.
PEEL
To make small, straight, shallow cuts with a slicing knife in the surface of a food; often done to tenderize meat or to let sauces soak in.
SCORE
To cut food into large, thick or thin flat pieces with a slicing knife. Use a sawing motion while gently pressing the knife down.
SLICE
To pour or spoon pan juices, melted fat, or sauces over the surface of a food during cooking, using a baster, cup, or spoon, to keep the food moist and add flavor.
BASTE
To lower a food’s temperature to freezing or below by placing it in a freezer.
FREEZE
To expose to warmth in order to free from a frozen state.
DEFROST
To cause a solid food to turn into or become part of a liquid.
DISSOLVE
To remove liquid from a solid food by pouring off the liquid, putting the food through a colander, or drying with paper towels.
DRAIN
To separate solid from liquid materials by pouring the mixture through a strainer or sieve.
STRAIN
To lightly sprinkle the surface of a food with crumbs, flour, or sugar.
DUST
To sprinkle or coat a food with flour.
FLOUR
To rub fat on the surface of a food or a cooking utensil.
GREASE
To soak food in a cold, seasoned liquid, usually containing an acid, in order to add flavor to or tenderize the food.
MARINATE
To make something easy to chew by applying a process or a substance that breaks down connective tissue or fiber.
TENDERIZE
To change food from a solid to a liquid by applying heat.
MELT
To immerse food in a liquid for the purpose of wetting, softening, dissolving, or cleaning.
SOAK
To increase the flavor of a food by adding herbs, spices, or other ingredients; to prepare a cooking utensil for cooking. (Ex. Cast iron skillet)
SEASON
To leave an opening in the covering of a food through which steam can escape.
VENT
To thoroughly mix ingredients and incorporate air using a spoon, wire whisk, mixer, or food processor with an up-and-down and circular motion
BEAT
To stir or mix ingredients until they are thoroughly combined and smooth
BLEND
To blend or mix two or more ingredients
COMBINE
To beat solid fat and sugar with a wooden spoon or electric mixer until smooth, light, and creamy
CREAM
To combine flour and solid fat by cutting the fat into tiny pieces using a pastry blender, two forks or knives, or the hands
CUTIN
To blend a delicate mixture into a heavier one, using a rubber spatula, spoon, or wire whisk in a gentle up, down, and over motion so that the mixture stays light
FOLD
To work a ball of dough with the heels of the hands repeating press, fold, and turn motions until the dough is smooth and elastic
KNEAD
To combine two or more ingredients into one mass by stirring or beating them
MIX
To reduce dry ingredients to finer particles, add air to dry ingredients, or combine dry ingredients by putting them through a sieve
SIFT
To mix using a spoon or wire whisk with a circular motion
STIR
To lightly mix ingredients by tumbling them with tongs or a large fork and spoon
TOSS
To beat quickly and vigorously by hand, wire whisk, or mixer to incorporate air and to make a mixture light and fluffy
WHIP
To cook in an oven with dry, hot air
BAKE
To cook uncovered under a direct heat source
BROIL
To broil over hot coals or on a griddle
GRILL
To cook meat, fish, or poultry uncovered in an oven with dry, hot air
ROAST
To roast slowly on a rack or spit over hot coals or some other direct heat source and baste with a spicy sauce
BARBECUE
To cook food in hot liquid, 212 degrees fahrenheit, having bubbles that rise to and break on the surface of the liquid
BOIL
To cook large pieces of meat or poultry slowly over low heat in a small amount of hot liquid in a tightly covered pan
BRAISE
To cook food in a microwave oven using little or no liquid
MICROWAVE
To cook food in liquid that is just below the boiling point
SIMMER
To cook food in a pan using vapor produced by a boiling liquid
STEAM
To cook food by completely immersing in hot fat; also know as French frying
DEEPFRY
To cook food in a small amount of hot fat
FRY
To lightly brown or cook food in a small amount of hot fat; also called pan-frying
SAUTE
To cook small pieces of food quickly over high heat in a small amount of fat while stirring constantly
STIRFRY
To turn on an appliance or oven to a desired temperature about 5 – 10 minutes before the food is to be placed in it
PREHEAT

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