Toxins that can harm tissues, trigger damaging immune responses, or result in toxemia (the presence of toxins in the bloodstream)
Secreted by pathogens into their environments
Antibodies the host forms to bind with and destroy toxins
Released from the outer membrane of dividing, dead, and phagocytosed gram- bacteria and can cause fever, inflammation, systemic shock, and other fatal effects
Allow them to avoid phagocytosis or survive inside macrophages
Time between infection and occurrence of the first symptoms
Time of generalized mild symptoms preceding illness
Stage during which the patient's body gradually returns to normal in response to immune system and medical treatment
Patient recovers and tissues are repaired
A patient may be infections during every stage of disease
Person-to-person spread by bodily contact (includes placenta)
One host to another via fomites
Inanimate objects inadvertently used to transfer pathogens
Droplet nuclei that exit the body during exhalation, sneezing, and coughing (travel less than 1m)
Spread of pathogens via air, water, and food as well as bodily fluids handled outside the body
important in the spread of many gastrointestinal pathogens
Pathogens in/on food that are inadequately processed, undercooked, or poorly refrigerated
Major source of disease, many pathogens are shed in feces
Occur when blood, urine, and other fluids are handled outside the body
Animals such as arthropods that transmit diseases from one host to another
Serve as both reservoir and transmitters
Such vectors only passively carry pathogens to new hosts on their feet or other body parts
Develops rapidly but lasts only a short time, either resolving or causing host death
Develops slowly with less severe symptoms but is continual or recurrent
Have durations and severities that lie somewhere between acute and chronic
Those in which a pathogen remains inactive for a long period of time before producing signs and symptoms
If they come from another infected host
Crossword puzzles have been published in newspapers and other publications since 1873. They consist of a grid of squares where the player aims to write words both horizontally and vertically.
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Crosswords are a great exercise for students' problem solving and cognitive abilities. Not only do they need to solve a clue and think of the correct answer, but they also have to consider all of the other words in the crossword to make sure the words fit together.
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