a drug that prevents pain during surgery
anesthesia
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
enclosure
Scottish engineer
James Watt
money used to invest in enterprises
capital
a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
enterprise
those who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses
entrepreneurs
cottage industry
putting-out system
invented a machine called the cotton gin
Eli Whitney
private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a toll, or fee, to use them
turnpikes
one of the world's first major rail lines
Liverpool
One of the world's first major rail lines that opened in England in 1830.
Manchester
the movement of people to cities
urbanization
workers' organizations
labor unions
multistory buildings divided into apartments
tenements
British economist
Thomas Malthus
British philosopher and economist
Jeremy Bentham
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
utilitarianism
to end poverty and injustice
socialism
the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods
means of production
the Utopian who set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland
Robert Owen
a German philosopher
Karl Marx
a system in which governments are led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life
communism
working class
proletariat
a political ideology, in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
social democracy