living single celled microorganisms; with the right conditions they double every 20 minutes
government agency concerned with the cause, spread and control of disease (abbreviation)
presence of pathogenic microorganisms or harmful substances in food
transfer of harmful microorganisms from a contaminated food or other source to food
water has been removed from these
bacteria which can cause digestive illness, possible fatal; contaminants are undercooked hamburger and unpasteurized milk or juice
disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms in food
time from exposure to development of symptoms
exposing food to controlled levels of ionizing waves to kill harmful substances
disease caused by bacteria which can cause septicemia, meningitis and can be fatal
a very small life form, invisible to the naked eye
some are used in production of cheese, but others can cause food spoilage or poisonous substances that cause illness
this is often called the cruise-ship bug; causes flu-like symptoms and is easily spread
smaller than bacteria;don't replicate in food
single celled organism, can be used to make bread but can cause spoilage
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
the absence of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms
the use of a chemical agent or solution to destroy pathogens
the presence of an infectious agent on a body surface or clothing, bedding and surgical instruments
free from bacteria or other living microorganisms
a specified area such as within a tray that is considered to be free of microorganisms
a medical device that uses temperature and steam to sterilize surgical instruments
guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reducing risk of transmission
personal protective equipment such as gloves and masks
the process of destroying all microorganisms and their pathogenic products
the process of destroying all bacteria
a substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms
a route in which a pathogen can enter a susceptible host
the conveyance of a disease from one person to another person or object
a pathogen that causes a disease such as virus, parasite or bacterium
an area for a pathogen to live and develop
acquired or occurring in a hospital
requires oxygen to live
can live and develop without oxygen
human immunodeficiency virus
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
hepatitis b virus
organisms invisible to the naked eye
a bacterium, virus or other microorganism that can cause disease
a microorganism that cannot cause disease
a disease that can transmitted
a route where a pathogen can leave its host
substances that make food unfit for used
sickness caused by eating food that contains a harmful substance
living creatures that are visible only through a microscope
keeping food safe to eat by following proper food handling and cooking practices
scrubing your hands using soap and warm for 20 seconds
harmful bacteria spread from one food to another
temperature at the center of the thickest part of the food
moisture loss caused when food is improperly packaged or stored in the freezer too long
ranges from sugar to seaweed and can be used by food processors for specified uses without further testing
process of exposing food to high intensity energy waves to increase its shelf life and kill harmful microrganisms
immediate removal of a product from store shelves
the useof biological agents - bacteria, viruses, and toxins - to harm people, animals, or plants
poisons that can cause illness
protected cells that develop into bacteria under the right conditions
keeping yourself clean
spoilage due to breakdown of fats
maximum safe level for a certain chemical in the huma body
One-celled microorganisms having both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful and some are harmless
Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking.
Single-cell organisms that grow in irregular masses that include molds, mildews, and yeasts.
Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated object, such as a razor, extractor, nipper, or an environmental surface.
Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.
Nonscientific synonym for disease-producing organisms.
Any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
Harmful microorganisms that enter the body and can cause disease.
Organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as the host) while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses).
A submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms.
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
A disease that is spread from one person to another person.
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residues such as dust, hair, and skin.
Condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection.
too small to be seen by the naked eye
micro-organisms that cause infection
small single cell organisms
resistant form of bacteria, remain viable for years
only grow inside animals
organisms that contains genetic material
decompose plants and animals to fill the soil with nutrients.
smallest and least understood of all microbes.
complex single cell organisms.
most micro-organisms do not cause infections
any place where pathogens can thrive or pose a threat, must have moisture, nutrients, and suitable temperature.
route through which blood, body fluids, excretions, or secretions leave the body.
most dircet way to break the cycle is prevention.
host is touched by infected person transmitting pathogens directly.
object has been in contact with pathogen.
infected arthropod as a host.
any medium that transports pathogens.
occurs with dust that contains spores or by droplet.
when an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings
route pathogens gain entry into a host.
a pathogen lives inside.
a natural resistance.
born with a certian amount of immunity
occurs following an injection of prepared anitbodies
2 million hospitalized patients acquire annually
reducing the probability of speading infection
best way to avoid spreading infection
Microorganisms that infect a host organism with diseases.
A single-celled organism that can be found everyone in the world, even in food.
Tiny organisms that can cause severe illnesses in humans, animals, and plants.
When a food or beverage is heated up to a point where it can cause food spoilage or diseases.
To transfer bacteria from one food to another by using un-sanitized hands, or dirty utensils.
A term used to describe something that is free of live microorganisms.
When something is free of bacteria and visible dirt.
A microorganism known to cause fermentation.
An organism that lives inside another organism.
A microscopic fungi that lives on plants and animals
Living orgnisms invisible to the naked eye
Study of viruses
Study of fungi
Requires oxygen to grow
Grows in an oxygen free environment
Bacteria that grows with or without oxygen
Microorganisms capable of producing disease
Harmless microorgnisms with their normal environment
Shape of Coccus
Rod shape bacteria
Formed under conditions of nutritional depletion, capable of surviving adverse conditions
Smaller than bacteria and are completely reliant on the host cell for survival
Reside on the surface of the skin and are easily removed by washing
Live in the cracks and crevices of the skin
Apparently healthy person who harbors and can transmit a pathogenic organism
Soiled by a microorganism
Particle of moisture which carries microorganisms
Special percautions taken to prevent transmission of microorganisms from specific body substance
Severe toxic febrile state resulting from infection with Pyogenic microorganism
Free of microorganisms and spores
E Coli is an example of what type of flora
An aerobic gram-positive bacilli
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is an example of an aerobic gram-____ bacilli
Clostridium _____ is an example of an anaerobic gram-positive bacteria
This is transmitted through percutaneous or permucous in blood, serum, and other body fluids
Coexists with Hepatitis B
This can normally be found in the oral cavity, digestive tract and vagina
These are hospital acquired infections that occur in about 35% of all surgical patients
Most postoperative infections result from seeding by this type of microorganism
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease
Pathogen that lives in blood
Bacteria that requires oxygen for survival
Bacteria that live without oxygen
Small microbes that pass through most filters
Microbes that grow on other organisms
Animal pathogen, parasites
The way microorganisms enter the body
Number of portals of entry for microorganisms
Spread of disease by contact with pathogen
Confined to one area of the body
Spread through the body
Usual amount of specific disease in a community
Excess of normal occurrences of a specific disease
Increase in normal number of cases of specific disease in a defined geographic area
Epidemic spread over several countries
Recently appearing infectious diseases in a population
Ingested or injected substances that have ability to inhibit growth or destroy pathogens
Chemical agents that treat disease
Biologic or chemical agents that create immunity
Absence or control of microorganisms
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Bacteriostatic agents used on skin
Bacteriostatic agents used on inanimate objects
Process of destroying all living organisms
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Organism that lives at the expense of another
Encapsulated bacteria in an inative state
disease causing microorganism
contains enzymes/ chemicals to kill pathogens
wet and sticky substance produced by cells that line the nose and lungs - traps germs/ dust/ bacteria
contains acid that kills pathogens
stops some microorganisms entering the ear canal
stops some microorganisms entering the nasal passages
tiny hair like structure that sweeps dust/ bacteria out of the throat and lungs
a way of growing bacteria in a lab under sterile (very clean) conditions
when our body knows which antibodies to make against a disease so we are protected from that disease
chemical produced by white blood cells that target specific virus/bacteria and kill them
these cancel out the toxins made by the pathogen
some white blood cells surround the pathogen and ingest them and destroy them
outer protective layer prevents pathogens coming into the body
Biological, Chemical, or Physical
food most likely to become unsafe
inspects meat, poultry, and eggs
harmful microorganisms are called
food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, moisture
require a living host to grow
yeast, mold, mushrooms
assure, look, employees, reports, threat
a protein in a food or ingredient that some people are sensitive to
a severe allergic reaction than can lead to death