Type
Crossword
Description

An infectious particle consisting of little more than genes packaged in a protein coat Virus
The protein shell enclosing the viral genome Capsid
RNA animal viruses that have an enzyme that transcribes RNA into DNA Retroviruses
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates the immune system to mount defenses against the harmful pathogen Vaccines
A general outbreak of a disease Epidemic
A global epidemic Pandemic
Small, circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome Plasmid
Former genes that accumulated mutations and are no longer functional Pseudogenes
Viruses that infect bacteria Bacteriophages
A membrane, derived from membranes of the host cell, that cloaks the capsid Viral Envelope

viruses Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

An infectionious particle made only out of a strand of DNA or RNA is known as what? virus
What produces disease? pathogen
What is an infectious particle that causes diseases in plants? viroid
What is an infectious particle made out of only proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly? prion
What is the protein shell around viruses called? capsid
What are viruses that infect bacteria? bacteriophages
What is the phage DNA inserted into the host cell’s DNA? prophage
What is the phage that combines its DNA with the host cells DNA? lysogenic infection
What is an infection pathway in which the host cell bursts? lytic infection
What is the most familiar cold? common cold
What is a rapid outbreak of an infection? epidemic
What substance stimulates the bodys immune response? vaccine
What is a virus that contains RNA and uses an enzyme to make a copy of DNA? retrovirus
What is a small piece of genetic material that can replicate seperatley from the main chromosome? plasmid
What is a long rope like structure outside of a cell that is used for movement? flagellum
What is it called when prokaryotes exchange parts of their chromosomes? conjugation
What is a specialized cell with a protected wall? endospore
What is the process that uses microbes to break down pollutants? bioremediation
What is a poison released by organisms? toxin
What is a chemical that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria? antibiotics

Bacteria & Viruses Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Belongs to domain bacteria Bacteria
Cicular chromosome in an area of the cell Nucleoid
Causes bacteria Capsule
Submicrophic, hairlike structure that are made of proteins Pilius
Division of a cell Binary fission
Formation or existence of a link or connection between things Conjugation
Resist harsh conditions Endospore
Nonliving strand of genetic material within a protein coat Virus
Outer protein coat of a virus Capsid
Results in the destruction of the infected cell and it's membrane Lytic cycle
Viral DNA Inserts, or integrates, into a chromosome in a host cell Lysogenic cycle
Has RNA instead of DNA for their genetic material Retrovirus
Protein infectious particles Prion
Lacks a nucleus Prokaryote
Viruses that infect bacteria Bacteriophage
Photosynthetic but still get organic compounds for carbon Photoautotroph
Makes organic carbon molecules using energy from chemical reactions Chemoautotroph
Can live in extreme conditions Archaea
An organism deriving it's nutritional requirements from complex organic substances Heterotroph
Permanent change in the DNA nitrogen base code Mutations

Viruses Vocabulary Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

an infectious particle made only of a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. Virus
agent that causes disease Pathogen
Infectious particle that can cause diseases in plants Viroid
Infectous particle made only of proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly Prion
a single viral particle Virion
protein shell that surrounds a virus. Capsid
virus that can infect bacteria Bacteriophage
An infection pathway in which the host cell bursts, Releasing new viral offspring into host system Lytic Infection
A phage combines its DNA into host cell DNA Lysogenic Infection
the phage DNA inserted into the host cells DNA Prophage
rapid outbreak the affects many people Epidemic
Substance that stimulates the body’s own immune response against invasion Vaccine
a virus that contains RNA and uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a DNA copy Retrovirus

Bacteria and Virus Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

a non living strand of genetic material within a protein coat virus
prokaryotic organisms that belong to domain bacteria bacteria
the outer layer of all viruses capsid
in a prokaryotic cell that contains a large, circular chromosome nucleoid
when the viral DNA inserts, or integrates into a chromosome in a host cell lysogenic cycle
a layer of polysaccharides around the cell wall capsule
submicroscopic, hairlike structures that are made of protein pilus
RNA virus, such as HV, iwth a reverse transcriptas in its core retrovirus
protein that can cause infection or disease prion
the division of a cell into two genetically identical cells binary fission
two prokaryotes attatch to each other and exchange genetic information conjugation
dormant bacterial endospore

Unit Two Reveiw Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

submicroscopic, infectious agents viruses
protein shell that protects the genome capsid
three dimensional polygon shaped capsid icosahedral
many viruses have spikes, or _______, that may protrude from the viral capsid or enelope peplomers
occurs when two different viral strains coinfect a single host cell reassortment
The RNA genome mutates frequently causing minor changes (two words) antigeneticdrift
viruses can be grouped by the presence or absence of an _________ envelope
a collection of species that a virus can infect (two words) hostrange
infectious proteins that contain no genetic material prions
organisms that live in extreme pH, temperature, and/or salt extremophiles
organisms that do not use oxygen to grow anaerobes
______ media singles out bacteria with specific properties selective
a substance or agent that destroys microorganisms germicide
a viable plate count is considered a ______ method of couting direct
term for pathway that breaks things down catabolic
protein catalysts that help chemical reactions occur under cellular conditions enzymes
first step of catabolism in any cell glycolysis
movement of ions accross a semipermiable membrane down the electrochemical gradient chemiosmosis
this follows glycolysis in prokaryotes fermentation
where are essential amino acids produced? cells
where are non-essential amino acids produced environment
a series of redox reactions and decarboxylation reactions krebs
type of inhibition when a substance binds somewhere esle on an enzyme, not the active site, disabling it non-competitive
most effective way to attain ATP aerobic
the process of building glucose glucogenesis
studies the pattern of disease incidence to design measures to limit transmission epidemiology
pathogen that does not require a weakened host truepathogen
disease sspread from animals to humans zoonotic
rapid, widespread disease in a particular region during a short time frame epidemic
rapid onset and progression of a disease means it is acute
habitat where an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies reservoir
if you got a pathogen from the environment, animals, or other humans the source is exogenous
person to person contact, animal bites, and scratches are all which type of contact direct
degree of pathogenicity, severity of the damage of a disease virulence
phase of infection where the earliest symptoms arise prodromal
another word for HAI's nosocomial
drug resistent pathogens superbug
incidence of a specific disease within a population morbidity
only disease to be completly eradicated smallpox
subsidiary of the US department of health and human services CDC
the who, what, and where of a particular disease epidemiologicaltriangle
well known disease that is spread through vertical transmission HIV
refers to the tissues or cell specificity due to viral surface factors tropism
the order level is the highest ______ for viruses taxon
During _____ phage commandeers host cell factors to transcribe and translate viral genes replication

Chapter 18 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

protein shell that surronds a virus capsid
any living organism or particle that can cause an infectious disease pathogen
a process by which humans use living things to break down pollutants bioremediation
An infectious particle made up of only a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat virus
Infectious particles that cause disease in plants viroids
A substance that stimulates the body's own immune response against invasion by microbes vaccine
A virus that contains RNA and use the enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a DNA copy retrovirus
A poison released by an organism toxin
The phage DNA inserted into the host cells DNA lysogenticinfection
An infectious particle made up of proteins that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly prion
Prokaryote that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen obligateanaerobe
Chemical that kills or slows the growth of bacteria antibiotics
A process by which a prokaryote transfers part of its chromosome to another prokaryote conjugation
Circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosomes plasmid
Any living organism or particle that can cause an infectious disease pathogen
Whiplike structure outside of a cell that is used for movement flagellum
Prokaryotic cell with a thick, protective wall surrounding its DNA endospore
Organism that can live with or without oxygen facultativeaerobe
A process by which humans use living things to break down pollutants bioremediaton
An infection pathway in which the host cell bursts, releasing the new viral offspring into the hosts system, where each then infects another cell lyticinfection
Viruses that infect bacteria bacteriophages

DNA Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA. Nucleotide
A pair of parallel helices intertwined aboucomt a mon axis,especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule. Double Helix
Constrains imposed by the molecular structure of DNA and RNA on the formation of hydrogen bonds among the four purine and pyrimidine bases such that adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. Base-pairing rules
Genetics. The process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand. Replication
Any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors. DNA Polymerase
Molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation,by which the information in genes flows into proteins. Central Dogma
Any of a class of single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast RNA
The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA. Transcription
An enzyme that synthesizes the formation of RNA from a DNA template during transcription. RNA Polymerase
The form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome. Messenger RNA
A type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Ribosomal RNA
A small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Transfer RNA
The process follows transcription in which the DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA. Translation
A triplet of adjacent nucleotides in the messenger RNA chain that codes for a specific amino acid in the synthesis of a protein molecule. Codon
A codon that stops the synthesis of a protein molecule. Stop Codon
A codon that starts the synthesis of protein molecule. Start Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis. Anticodon
Occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. Mutation
A type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. Point Mutation
A number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. Frameshift Mutation

DNA and RNA Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A change in the genetic material of cell Mutation
Each three base set of genetic code. Codon
The cell uses information from mRNA to make proteins during _____________ . Translation
The language for naming RNA. Genetic code
A condition in which an organism has extra set of chromosome. Polyploidy
A group of three bases of tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of condon of mRNA. Anticodon
The tips of chromosomes. Telomere
The process of copying DNA from DNA. Replication
A kind of virus that infects bacteria cell. Bacteriophage
The process in which one stain of bacteria is change by a gene or genes from another bacteria. Transformation
An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA Polymerase
A long chains of amino acids that make proteins Polypeptides
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template , or pattern. Transcription
A type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to all cell part. mRNA
A type of RNA that carries each amino acid to form ribosomes. Transfer RNA
A singled-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. RNA
A chemical or physical agent in the environment that interacts with DNA and may cause mutation. Mutagen
A cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes. Diploid
A cell that contains only one set of genes. Haploid
Chromosomes in which one set comes from male parent and another set comes from female parent Homologous

chapter 12 biology Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

sequence of dna with proteins and traits gene
carries copies if instructions messenger rna
transfers amino acids transfer rna
helps assemble proteins ribosomal rna
dna copied into a rna sequence transcription
binds to dna and separates strands during transcriptions rna polymerase
dna enzyme binds to make rna promoter
not involved in coding for proteins intron
3 nucleotide sequence on messenger rna codon
decoding of mrna into a chain translation
trna molecule that are complimentary to a mrna codon anticodon
dna coiled in around proteins chromatin
dna coiled in the chromatin histone
cell duplicates its dna replication
enzyme involved in replication dna polymerase
1 strand of bacteria is changed by a gene transformation
virus that infects bacteria bacteriophage
monomer of nucleic acids nucleotide
A=T and G=C base pairing
change in the dna sequence mutation
changes in 1 or few nucleotides point mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame frameshift mutation
extra set of chromosomes polyploidy
genes operating together operon
operon is turned off operator
cells become specialized differentiation
controls the differentiation of cells and tissue hoxgene
codes for proteins exon

Epigenetics Word Search

Type
Word Search
Description

transposons
Pseudogenes
rrna
Promoters
introns
telomeres
centromeres
mirnas
snornas
xist rna
sirnas
telomerase RNA
trna
snRNAs
viral DNA