Type
Crossword
Description

large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle bonanza farms
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers sod house
Sod houses were common in the ________ as settlers moved west Midwest
This phrase, which implies divine encouragement for territorial expansion Manifest Destiny
allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of twenty-one—including unmarried women—to receive a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filing fee. Homestead Act
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there western settlers: The first houses built by __________ were typically made of mud and sod with thatch roofs exodusters
Farmers also faced the ever-present threat of _______and farm foreclosure by the banks debt
primary goal of most western settlers homestead farming
he period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884 Fence Cutting War
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest? hostile Indian attacks
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture? Mexicans
Which of the following was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.? gold
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt and gravel through “panning” or by diverting a stream through a sluice box Forty-Niners
provided a quick path from Texas to railroad terminals in Abilene, Wichita, and Dodge City, Kansas, where cowboys would receive their pay. Chisholm Trail
also known as “devil’s rope” barbed wire
who brought their families west? wealthy men
many of the long-trail cattle riders were? African American
This agreement established distinct tribal borders, essentially codifying the reservation system First Treaty of Fort Laramie
. Rather, they either returned to tribal life or fled out of fear of remaining troops, until the ____________ arrived in greater numbers and began to exterminate Indian U.S. Army

Chapter 17 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

the phrase, coined by journalist John O’Sullivan, which came to stand for the idea that white Americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West with Protestant democratic values Manifest Destiny
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there exodusters
large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle bonanza farms
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers sod house
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest? hostile Indian attacks
What group was not impacted by the invention of barbed wire? illegal prostitutes
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture? Mexicans
the period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884 Fence Cutting War
What did the Last Arrow pageant symbolize? finalstep
what was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
a militia raid led by Colonel Chivington on an Indian camp in Colorado, flying both the American flag and the white flag of surrender; over one hundred men, women, and children were killed Sand Creek Massacre
the Spanish name for White Caps, the rebel group of Hispanic Americans who fought back against the appropriation of Hispanic land by whites; for a period in 1889–1890, they burned farms, homes, and crops to express their growing anger at the injustice of the situation las Gorras Blancas
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.? gold
In the nineteenth century, the Hispanic, Chinese, and white populations of the country ___________. collided
Chinese immigrants, Hispanic citizens were relegated to the______-paying jobs worst
The original ___________ were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt Forty-Niners
An even more violent confrontation occurred between large ranchers and small farmers in Johnson County, Wyoming, where cattle ranchers organized a lynching bee
a Canadian-born fur trapper, Henry Comstock
While the______ industry lacked the romance of the Gold Rush cattle
the _______ expanded rail lines and invested in ranches east

Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

the period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves Fence Cutting War
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture Mexicans
an integral part of western expansion cattle drives
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
a militia raid led by Colonel Chivington on an Indian camp in Colorado, flying both the American flag and the white flag of surrender; over one hundred men, women, and children were killed Sand Creek Massacre
not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
was the chief of the Nez Perce tribe Chief Joseph
the rebel group of Hispanic Americans who fought back against the appropriation of Hispanic land by whites las Gorras Blancas
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S gold
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
manual laborers similar to slaves peons
cattle herders vaqueros
came to stand for the idea that white americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West with Protestant demorcatic values manifest destiny
which came to stand for the odea that white Americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West exodusters
"we are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can John O' Sullivan
helped settlers move west more quickly, as well as move their farm products Pacific Railway Act
the country by rail was driven into the ground in Utah Golden Spike
large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land bonanza farms
frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooter prairie grass sod houses
author of the little house series laura ingalls wilder
dry-farming techniques to grow corn, wheat, and sorghum great plains
temporary designed to civilize and christianize indians reservation system

17.4 The Loss of Indian Life & Culture Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The forced relocation of nearly fifty-thousand Indians to the west of the Mississippi River (what is now Oklahoma) between 1831 and 1838. TrailofTears
Agreement that established distinct tribal borders for Northern tribes, codifying the reservation system. FirstTreatyofFortLaramie
President __________ intervened in the 303 Dakota Sioux Indians who were sentences to death for their rebellion in what became known as the "Dakota War". Lincoln
A militia raid led by Colonel Chivington on an Indian camp in Colorado, flying both the American Flag and the white flag of surrender; over 100 men, women, and children were killed. SandCreekMassacre
The process by which an Indian was "redeemed" and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land. Americanization
An attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians. BattleofWoundedKnee
The iconic figure who led Indians in what was their largest victory against American settlers at Little Bighorn River. SittingBull
Because of the discovery of ____ in the Black Hills, settlers broke the agreements which granted the lands to the Sioux's. gold
Known to his people as "Thunder Traveling to the Loftier Mountain Heights" was the chief of the Nez Perce tribe who lead his tribe to Canada, but were caught within 50 miles of the Canadian border. ChiefJoseph
A performance the Sioux had begun on their reservation , which told of an Indian Messiah who would deliver the tribe from its hardship; worried white settlers of uprisings GhostDance
A government policy toward Indians which permitted the federal government to divide the lands of any tribe and grant 160-320 acres of land in order to encourage individualism. DawesSeveraltyAct
Moved the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche tribes to "Indian Territory" (Oklahoma) TreatyofMedicineLodgeCreek
Moved the remaining Sioux to the Black Hills in the Dakota territory. SecondTreatyofFortLaramie
Indians faced _________ when they resisted the local/state militia units' forcible removals. massacres
Run by Bureau of Indian Affairs, _______ were temporary, merely "designed to civilize and Christianize Indians". reservations
Fought on June 25, 1876, federal troops led by Colonel Custer foolishly attacked the main Sioux force in Montana, perhaps the most famous battle of the American West. BattleatLittleBighorn
Symbolized the final step in the Americanization process, Indians were forced to symbolically fire their "last arrow" into the air and leave their culture and history behind, dress in white coveralls, holding an American flag. LastArrowPageant
An Indian tribe associated with the "Ghost Dance" Sioux
An armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves. FenceCuttingWar
The backbone of Western expansion was ___________. Homesteading
_________ of the 'Wild West' were mostly Hispanic and African American Cowboys
The idea that "Americans were destined and divinely ordained to expand democratic institutions throughout the continent. Manifest Destiny
African Americans who fled the racism and violence of the Old South. Exodusters
Large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land. Bonanzafarms
Congress passed the act during the move westward, which allowed any head of a household or individual over the age of 21 to receive a parcel of 160 acres. Homestead Act

Chapter 17 Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

The doctrine or belief that the expansion of the U. S. throughout American continents manifest destiny
Wrote that “It was our Mnsifest Destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free developement of our multiplying millions” John O’Sullivan
The most famous western route that the Americans and immigrants used oregon trail
Allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of 21 to recieve a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filling fee homestead act
Thousands of African Americans who fled the racism of the South exodusters
The first peacetime all-black regiments in the U.S. army buffalo soldiers
Farms that survived and hired additional labor and were able to grow profitable bonanza
Men and women who had a difficult life on the frontier when they settled in the Midwest sodbusters
First houses built by western settlers that were made of mud and sod Sodhouses
Made by James Oliver and was equipped to cut the grass roots and withstand rock damage chilled plow
Women who were considered equal partners in the success of the homestead pioneer
This was a requirement, but finding water and building adequate systems was too difficult irrigation
The repeated strike of gold for a decade California Gold Rush
Individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt through “panning” Forty-niners
A colored vein that proved to be the first significant silver discovery in the U.S. Comstock Lode
City that became a permanent settlement, as business sought a stable environment to use as a base for their mining ventures Denver
Admitted to the Union as a state in 1864 Nevada
Cities that grew to accomodate the needs of cowboys and the cattle indistry cowtowns
Invention that made ranches able to cheaply and easily parcel off their land barbed wire
Mining town that had twenty-nine murders between 1877 and 1883, and only one person was convicted Bodie
The culture that the American cowboy adopted many traditions from Mexican
A Sioux chieftain who urged Indians from all tribes to join his men in defense of their lands Sitting Bull
The action of making a person or thing American in character or nationality Americanization
A racial slur directed towards people of any Asian descent coolie
Hispanic citizens who worked as manual laborers similiar to slaves peons

Manifest Destiny Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America Manifest Destiny
gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California California Gold Rush
used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States John L Sullivan
William Becknell and five other men began their journey Westward from Franklin, Missouri to New Mexico santa fe trail
traveled on the Santa fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico William Becknell
key to the nation’s health according to Thomas Jefferson Westward Expansion
purchased the territory of Louisiana from the French government Thomas Jefferson
Mexico lost nearly half of its territory, the present American Southwest from Texas to California; U.S. became a continental power. Mexican American War
negotiated Webster-Ashburton Treaty Daniel Webster
route over which settlers traveled to Oregon oregon trail
discovered in California in 1848 gold
Maine vs.Canada Aroostook War
president during Manifest Destinty James k polk
when people from two countries occupy and settle a territory joint occupation
to take control of annex
After the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna is captured and recognizes Texas as independent Lone Star Republic
as a result of the treaty, the U.S. annexed present-day New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California Mexican Cession
to give land over to another country Cession

California Gold Rush Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

He was the first to find gold James Marshall
The news of gold saturated the country, people from near and far traveled in search of tapping into the riches of gold! People left high paying jobs to mine for gold, it eventually became known as…. Gold Fever
The easiest way to discover gold in the sand panning
Name for the people who panned for gold Gold prospectors
Long wooden frames used for searching through large amounts of gravel and soil sluices
What percent of the miners were men 97
These were used for shelter by the minors tents
A disease that spread from the dirty water and living conditions. cholera
This man’s entrepreneurial path started by selling canvas tents to the prospectors. This then led to a hired seamstress to help miners sew knees of pants that had worn out from a hard days work. The canvas was switched to denim. Levi Strauss
How much gold was harvested by 1960 in California 500 million
State where THIS gold rush took place California
What year did the California gold rush take place? 1848
Conflict arose with the _____ when the settlers approached California Native Americans
People who went to California looking for Gold in 1849 FortyNiners
These grew near all the major mining sites. Eventually a bunch of restaurants, hotels, and other places were built in order to accommodate the miners. Boom Towns
Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush Sutters Mill
Steamships and railroads were used as _______ during the gold rush Transportation
What two things were miners forced to create when they arrived in California Laws and government
What could a miner do if he felt mistreated by a group of miners? Call camp meeting
A large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field gold rush
A soft yellow malleable ductile metallic element that California miners were in search for gold
Who was the president of America during the California gold rush? James Polk
The act of searching for precious minerals in the earth mining
A seam-like deposit containing metallic ore Iode
A lump or mass of gold nugget
A descriptive phrase used by a miner who strikes gold paydirt
The first migrants to arrive were those from lands accessible by _____. Boat
The Gold Rush undoubtedly sped up California’s admission to the Union as the ___state. 31
By the end of the decade, California’s population was_______. 380000
California officially became a US state because of what compromise? Compromise of 1850

american west crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

what was owning your own land and working for your self homestead
the supply of water to land or crops to help growth, typically by means of channels. Irrigation
The Oregon Trail is a 2,170-mile historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. oregon
there were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain, typically called a homestead homestead act
a lode of silver ore located under the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range in Nevada. It was the first major discovery of silver ore in the United States, and named after American miner Henry Comstock comstock lode
what was a job that required going underground mining for ores in harsh conditions Mining Conditions
who would travel and ride cattle to slaughter houses cowboys
what was the invention that stopped cattle from hazing on free land Barbed Wire
the first railroad that was 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. transcontinental railroad
where americans would move indians to and have them live there Reservations
what was meat that came from cows called and most consumed then beef
was the flagship Indian boarding school in the United States from 1879 through 1918. Carlisle Indian School

Chapter 18 The Last Frontier Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

A deposit of precious metal Lode
What yeilded more then $400 millian worth of precious metals 55% silver 45% gold? Comstock Lode
In 1862, what opened Western lands for free settlement? Homestead Act
________designed the first practical barbed wire. Jospeph Glidden
What required the government to buy silver? Bland Aliison Act
Most Cowboys of the frontier were _______. Very young
People under te care and protection of others ________. Wards
________ was defeated at Little Big Horn by a group of Sioux warriors. George Custer
Areas set aside for Native Americans. Reservations
Source of gold in the Black Hills. Homestake Mine
Who gave land to individual Native Americans for self support? Dawes Act
What invention helped the prairie farmers pump water from a well? Windmill

Indian Removal Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

Group of tried to live in America. Native Americans
Signed by President Andrew Jackson alone removal of Native Americans. Indian removal act
Didn't who signed Indian removal act Andrew Jackson
Did you know his nation and lived in southern Appalacian regions, largest of the three federally recognized tribes Cherokee
Indigenous nation that lived in Southeast US during 19th century. Creek
Many Indians died on this journey from their home to Oklahoma. Trail of tears
Play in which the Indians were relocated to. Oklahoma
Army general responsible for removing Indians from their land Winfield Scott
Cherokee who broke tribal law by signing treaty of Washington Major ridge
Well educated Cherokee chief who took petition to Washington John Ross
Principal chief of the upper Creek who signed the treaty of New York Alexander McGillivary
Chief of the lower Creek who signed the treaty of Indian springs William McIntosh
Creator of the Indian syllabary Sequoyah
First newspaper published by Native Americans Cherokee Phoenix
Capital of the Cherokee nation New Echota

Chapter 13 Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

Farms that operated like factories, with expensive machinery who performed special taska Bonanza Farms
A law that allowed any adult head of the household to claim 160 acres of land Homestead Act
Homes built into the sides of hills dugouts
African Americans who moved from southern states to Kansas after the end of Reconstruction Exodusters
The federal agency that managed the Native American reservations was the Bureau of ________ Indian Affairs
A trail that ran from San Antonio,Texas to Abilene,Kansas Chisholm Trail
The process used to force Native Americans to abandon their traditional ways of life Americanization
Homes built from squares of turf and soil of the prairie Sod Houses
Searching for gold by using pans or other devices to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock Placer mining
Legislation passed by Congress that split up Indian reservation lands among individual Indians and promised them civilization dawes act