Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle bonanza farms
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers sod house
Sod houses were common in the ________ as settlers moved west Midwest
This phrase, which implies divine encouragement for territorial expansion Manifest Destiny
allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of twenty-one—including unmarried women—to receive a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filing fee. Homestead Act
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there western settlers: The first houses built by __________ were typically made of mud and sod with thatch roofs exodusters
Farmers also faced the ever-present threat of _______and farm foreclosure by the banks debt
primary goal of most western settlers homestead farming
he period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884 Fence Cutting War
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest? hostile Indian attacks
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture? Mexicans
Which of the following was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.? gold
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt and gravel through “panning” or by diverting a stream through a sluice box Forty-Niners
provided a quick path from Texas to railroad terminals in Abilene, Wichita, and Dodge City, Kansas, where cowboys would receive their pay. Chisholm Trail
also known as “devil’s rope” barbed wire
who brought their families west? wealthy men
many of the long-trail cattle riders were? African American
This agreement established distinct tribal borders, essentially codifying the reservation system First Treaty of Fort Laramie
. Rather, they either returned to tribal life or fled out of fear of remaining troops, until the ____________ arrived in greater numbers and began to exterminate Indian U.S. Army

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Chapter 17 Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

the phrase, coined by journalist John O’Sullivan, which came to stand for the idea that white Americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West with Protestant democratic values Manifest Destiny
a term used to describe African Americans who moved to Kansas from the Old South to escape the racism there exodusters
large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land; these large farms allowed their owners to benefit from economies of scale and prosper, but they did nothing to help small family farms, which continued to struggle bonanza farms
a frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooted prairie grass that was prevalent in the Midwest; sod, cut into large rectangles, was stacked to make the walls of the structure, providing an inexpensive, yet damp, house for western settlers sod house
What specific types of hardships did an average American farmer not face as he built his homestead in the Midwest? hostile Indian attacks
What group was not impacted by the invention of barbed wire? illegal prostitutes
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture? Mexicans
the period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California, leading others to rush in and follow suit; this period led to a cycle of boom and bust through the area, as gold was discovered, mined, and stripped California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country, discovered by Henry T. P. Comstock in 1859 in Nevada Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves occurred in Clay County, Texas, between 1883 and 1884 Fence Cutting War
What did the Last Arrow pageant symbolize? finalstep
what was not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
a militia raid led by Colonel Chivington on an Indian camp in Colorado, flying both the American flag and the white flag of surrender; over one hundred men, women, and children were killed Sand Creek Massacre
the Spanish name for White Caps, the rebel group of Hispanic Americans who fought back against the appropriation of Hispanic land by whites; for a period in 1889–1890, they burned farms, homes, and crops to express their growing anger at the injustice of the situation las Gorras Blancas
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.? gold
In the nineteenth century, the Hispanic, Chinese, and white populations of the country ___________. collided
Chinese immigrants, Hispanic citizens were relegated to the______-paying jobs worst
The original ___________ were individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt Forty-Niners
An even more violent confrontation occurred between large ranchers and small farmers in Johnson County, Wyoming, where cattle ranchers organized a lynching bee
a Canadian-born fur trapper, Henry Comstock
While the______ industry lacked the romance of the Gold Rush cattle
the _______ expanded rail lines and invested in ranches east

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Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

the period between 1848 and 1849 when prospectors found large strikes of gold in California California Gold Rush
the first significant silver find in the country Comstock Lode
this armed conflict between cowboys moving cattle along the trail and ranchers who wished to keep the best grazing lands for themselves Fence Cutting War
The American cowboy owes much of its model to what other culture Mexicans
an integral part of western expansion cattle drives
the process by which an Indian was “redeemed” and assimilated into the American way of life by changing his clothing to western clothing and renouncing his tribal customs in exchange for a parcel of land Americanization
an attempt to disarm a group of Lakota Sioux Indians near Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which resulted in members of the Seventh Cavalry of the U.S. Army opening fire and killing over 150 Indians Battle of Wounded Knee
a militia raid led by Colonel Chivington on an Indian camp in Colorado, flying both the American flag and the white flag of surrender; over one hundred men, women, and children were killed Sand Creek Massacre
not a primary method by which the American government dealt with American Indians during the period of western settlement? appeasement
was the chief of the Nez Perce tribe Chief Joseph
the rebel group of Hispanic Americans who fought back against the appropriation of Hispanic land by whites las Gorras Blancas
What brought the majority of Chinese immigrants to the U.S gold
How were Hispanic citizens deprived of their wealth and land in the course of western settlement? land seizures
manual laborers similar to slaves peons
cattle herders vaqueros
came to stand for the idea that white americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West with Protestant demorcatic values manifest destiny
which came to stand for the odea that white Americans had a calling and a duty to seize and settle the American West exodusters
"we are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can John O' Sullivan
helped settlers move west more quickly, as well as move their farm products Pacific Railway Act
the country by rail was driven into the ground in Utah Golden Spike
large farms owned by speculators who hired laborers to work the land bonanza farms
frontier home constructed of dirt held together by thick-rooter prairie grass sod houses
author of the little house series laura ingalls wilder
dry-farming techniques to grow corn, wheat, and sorghum great plains
temporary designed to civilize and christianize indians reservation system

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Manifest Destiny Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America Manifest Destiny
gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California California Gold Rush
used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States John L Sullivan
William Becknell and five other men began their journey Westward from Franklin, Missouri to New Mexico santa fe trail
traveled on the Santa fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico William Becknell
key to the nation’s health according to Thomas Jefferson Westward Expansion
purchased the territory of Louisiana from the French government Thomas Jefferson
Mexico lost nearly half of its territory, the present American Southwest from Texas to California; U.S. became a continental power. Mexican American War
negotiated Webster-Ashburton Treaty Daniel Webster
route over which settlers traveled to Oregon oregon trail
discovered in California in 1848 gold
Maine vs.Canada Aroostook War
president during Manifest Destinty James k polk
when people from two countries occupy and settle a territory joint occupation
to take control of annex
After the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna is captured and recognizes Texas as independent Lone Star Republic
as a result of the treaty, the U.S. annexed present-day New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California Mexican Cession
to give land over to another country Cession

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The Western Frontier Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Growing hostilities between settlers and Native Americans in eastern Colorado Sand Creek Massacre
Custer's Last Stand Little Bighorn
Leader of the Nez Perce Chief Joseph
Ghost Dance that led to the end of Native American resistance to federal authority Wounded Knee
Author of book describing broken promises to Native Americans Helen Hunt Jackson
Fenced off land cheaply and easily Barbed wire
Settlers could acquire 160 acres of land for 10 dollars by living there for 5 years Homestead Act
States established agricultural and mechanical colleges Morrill Land Grant
Plowed the soil on the Great Plains sodbusters
Discovery of silver that led to the creation of a boomtown Comstock Lode
Railroad that linked the nation from east to west Transcontinental Railroad
Immigrant labor used to by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Chinese and Irish
Location where the two great railroads were joined linking the country from Atlantic to Pacific Promontory Point Utah
Assimilation policy that allotted Native Americans 160 acres of land to farm Dawes Act

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California Gold Rush Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

He was the first to find gold James Marshall
The news of gold saturated the country, people from near and far traveled in search of tapping into the riches of gold! People left high paying jobs to mine for gold, it eventually became known as…. Gold Fever
The easiest way to discover gold in the sand panning
Name for the people who panned for gold Gold prospectors
Long wooden frames used for searching through large amounts of gravel and soil sluices
What percent of the miners were men 97
These were used for shelter by the minors tents
A disease that spread from the dirty water and living conditions. cholera
This man’s entrepreneurial path started by selling canvas tents to the prospectors. This then led to a hired seamstress to help miners sew knees of pants that had worn out from a hard days work. The canvas was switched to denim. Levi Strauss
How much gold was harvested by 1960 in California 500 million
State where THIS gold rush took place California
What year did the California gold rush take place? 1848
Conflict arose with the _____ when the settlers approached California Native Americans
People who went to California looking for Gold in 1849 FortyNiners
These grew near all the major mining sites. Eventually a bunch of restaurants, hotels, and other places were built in order to accommodate the miners. Boom Towns
Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush Sutters Mill
Steamships and railroads were used as _______ during the gold rush Transportation
What two things were miners forced to create when they arrived in California Laws and government
What could a miner do if he felt mistreated by a group of miners? Call camp meeting
A large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field gold rush
A soft yellow malleable ductile metallic element that California miners were in search for gold
Who was the president of America during the California gold rush? James Polk
The act of searching for precious minerals in the earth mining
A seam-like deposit containing metallic ore Iode
A lump or mass of gold nugget
A descriptive phrase used by a miner who strikes gold paydirt
The first migrants to arrive were those from lands accessible by _____. Boat
The Gold Rush undoubtedly sped up California’s admission to the Union as the ___state. 31
By the end of the decade, California’s population was_______. 380000
California officially became a US state because of what compromise? Compromise of 1850

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Chapter 17 Westward Expansion Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

The doctrine or belief that the expansion of the U. S. throughout American continents manifest destiny
Wrote that “It was our Mnsifest Destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free developement of our multiplying millions” John O’Sullivan
The most famous western route that the Americans and immigrants used oregon trail
Allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of 21 to recieve a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filling fee homestead act
Thousands of African Americans who fled the racism of the South exodusters
The first peacetime all-black regiments in the U.S. army buffalo soldiers
Farms that survived and hired additional labor and were able to grow profitable bonanza
Men and women who had a difficult life on the frontier when they settled in the Midwest sodbusters
First houses built by western settlers that were made of mud and sod Sodhouses
Made by James Oliver and was equipped to cut the grass roots and withstand rock damage chilled plow
Women who were considered equal partners in the success of the homestead pioneer
This was a requirement, but finding water and building adequate systems was too difficult irrigation
The repeated strike of gold for a decade California Gold Rush
Individual prospectors who sifted gold out of the dirt through “panning” Forty-niners
A colored vein that proved to be the first significant silver discovery in the U.S. Comstock Lode
City that became a permanent settlement, as business sought a stable environment to use as a base for their mining ventures Denver
Admitted to the Union as a state in 1864 Nevada
Cities that grew to accomodate the needs of cowboys and the cattle indistry cowtowns
Invention that made ranches able to cheaply and easily parcel off their land barbed wire
Mining town that had twenty-nine murders between 1877 and 1883, and only one person was convicted Bodie
The culture that the American cowboy adopted many traditions from Mexican
A Sioux chieftain who urged Indians from all tribes to join his men in defense of their lands Sitting Bull
The action of making a person or thing American in character or nationality Americanization
A racial slur directed towards people of any Asian descent coolie
Hispanic citizens who worked as manual laborers similiar to slaves peons

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Indian Removal Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Group of tried to live in America. Native Americans
Signed by President Andrew Jackson alone removal of Native Americans. Indian removal act
Didn't who signed Indian removal act Andrew Jackson
Did you know his nation and lived in southern Appalacian regions, largest of the three federally recognized tribes Cherokee
Indigenous nation that lived in Southeast US during 19th century. Creek
Many Indians died on this journey from their home to Oklahoma. Trail of tears
Play in which the Indians were relocated to. Oklahoma
Army general responsible for removing Indians from their land Winfield Scott
Cherokee who broke tribal law by signing treaty of Washington Major ridge
Well educated Cherokee chief who took petition to Washington John Ross
Principal chief of the upper Creek who signed the treaty of New York Alexander McGillivary
Chief of the lower Creek who signed the treaty of Indian springs William McIntosh
Creator of the Indian syllabary Sequoyah
First newspaper published by Native Americans Cherokee Phoenix
Capital of the Cherokee nation New Echota

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Chapter 13 Crossword Puzzle

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

Farms that operated like factories, with expensive machinery who performed special taska Bonanza Farms
A law that allowed any adult head of the household to claim 160 acres of land Homestead Act
Homes built into the sides of hills dugouts
African Americans who moved from southern states to Kansas after the end of Reconstruction Exodusters
The federal agency that managed the Native American reservations was the Bureau of ________ Indian Affairs
A trail that ran from San Antonio,Texas to Abilene,Kansas Chisholm Trail
The process used to force Native Americans to abandon their traditional ways of life Americanization
Homes built from squares of turf and soil of the prairie Sod Houses
Searching for gold by using pans or other devices to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock Placer mining
Legislation passed by Congress that split up Indian reservation lands among individual Indians and promised them civilization dawes act

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Chapter 18 The Last Frontier Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

A deposit of precious metal Lode
What yeilded more then $400 millian worth of precious metals 55% silver 45% gold? Comstock Lode
In 1862, what opened Western lands for free settlement? Homestead Act
________designed the first practical barbed wire. Jospeph Glidden
What required the government to buy silver? Bland Aliison Act
Most Cowboys of the frontier were _______. Very young
People under te care and protection of others ________. Wards
________ was defeated at Little Big Horn by a group of Sioux warriors. George Custer
Areas set aside for Native Americans. Reservations
Source of gold in the Black Hills. Homestake Mine
Who gave land to individual Native Americans for self support? Dawes Act
What invention helped the prairie farmers pump water from a well? Windmill

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THE WESTWARD EXPANSION: Solve the puzzle to recieve your GOLD. Crossword

Type
Crossword
Description

This crossword contains the following questions and answers:

After Jefferson's _______ _______, American more than doubled in size. Louisiana Purchase
_________ _____ ________ were the first explorers to travel out West after the Louisiana Purchase. Upon their return, more Americans began to travel west. Lewis and Clark
One reason Americans traveled out west was in hopes to escape __________ persecution. religious
Another reason Americans traveled out west because they heard that there were better opportunties and ________ was plentiful, affordable, and not crowded. Land
The pioneers traveled in wagons pulled by __________. oxen
The pioneers traveled down the Santa Fe, Oregon, and California Trails, which were soon known as the _________ ___ ____ _______ because these were the most widely used trails while traveling west. Gateway to the West
Some people traveled West in search of gold after it was discovered in California in 1848. This created what was known as the _________ ______ _______. California Gold Rush
_________ _________ was a belief that the natural outcome was for Americans to expand and settle the continent. Manifest Destiny
The ________ _______ of 1862 offered 160 acres of land in the West to citizens who were willing to farm it for at least five years. Homestead Act
The ________ _______ _______ _______ of 1850 allowed single men to purchase 320 acres of land and married men to purhcase 640 acres of land. This was the first law that allowed women and Native Americans to hold land in their name. Donation Land Claim Act
Pioneers experienced many dangers and hardships when traveling out west. Some of these included attacks by wild animals and hostile _________ ________ who resented the pioneers for coming into and settling in their territory. Native Americans

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