the absence of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms
the use of a chemical agent or solution to destroy pathogens
the presence of an infectious agent on a body surface or clothing, bedding and surgical instruments
free from bacteria or other living microorganisms
a specified area such as within a tray that is considered to be free of microorganisms
a medical device that uses temperature and steam to sterilize surgical instruments
guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reducing risk of transmission
personal protective equipment such as gloves and masks
the process of destroying all microorganisms and their pathogenic products
the process of destroying all bacteria
a substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms
a route in which a pathogen can enter a susceptible host
the conveyance of a disease from one person to another person or object
a pathogen that causes a disease such as virus, parasite or bacterium
an area for a pathogen to live and develop
acquired or occurring in a hospital
requires oxygen to live
can live and develop without oxygen
human immunodeficiency virus
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
hepatitis b virus
organisms invisible to the naked eye
a bacterium, virus or other microorganism that can cause disease
a microorganism that cannot cause disease
a disease that can transmitted
a route where a pathogen can leave its host
One-celled microorganisms having both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful and some are harmless
Transmission of blood or body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing, coughing, sneezing, and talking.
Single-cell organisms that grow in irregular masses that include molds, mildews, and yeasts.
Transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated object, such as a razor, extractor, nipper, or an environmental surface.
Invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.
Nonscientific synonym for disease-producing organisms.
Any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
Harmful microorganisms that enter the body and can cause disease.
Organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (referred to as the host) while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses).
A submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms.
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
A disease that is spread from one person to another person.
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residues such as dust, hair, and skin.
Condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection.
too small to be seen by the naked eye
micro-organisms that cause infection
small single cell organisms
resistant form of bacteria, remain viable for years
only grow inside animals
organisms that contains genetic material
decompose plants and animals to fill the soil with nutrients.
smallest and least understood of all microbes.
complex single cell organisms.
most micro-organisms do not cause infections
any place where pathogens can thrive or pose a threat, must have moisture, nutrients, and suitable temperature.
route through which blood, body fluids, excretions, or secretions leave the body.
most dircet way to break the cycle is prevention.
host is touched by infected person transmitting pathogens directly.
object has been in contact with pathogen.
infected arthropod as a host.
any medium that transports pathogens.
occurs with dust that contains spores or by droplet.
when an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings
route pathogens gain entry into a host.
a pathogen lives inside.
a natural resistance.
born with a certian amount of immunity
occurs following an injection of prepared anitbodies
2 million hospitalized patients acquire annually
reducing the probability of speading infection
best way to avoid spreading infection
Mode of Transmission
Chain of Infection
Portal of Entry
Portal of Exit
a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.
the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.
Organisms that live and reproduce in the absence of oxygen
Process that destroys all microorganisms including spores and viruses
Plantlike organisms that live on dead organic matter
Absence of pathogens
Infections acquired in health care facility
Organisms that require oxygen to live
Disease originates outside the body
One-celled plantlike organisms that multiply rapidly
Factors that must be present for disease to occur
Process that destroys or kills pathogens
Process that inhibits or prevents the growth of pathogenic organisms
One-celled animal organisms found in decayed materials and contaminated water
round or spherical arranged in a chain
intact unbroken skin
The study of microorganisms
An organism that cause disease
A food made with the help of bacteria
microorganisms used in the brewing and baking industry
A harmless dose of a disease causing microbe
A protein produced by white blood cells in response to an antigen
Resistant to a disease
a human disease caused by a fungus
A fungal disease which caused the Great Irish Famine
An organism that lives in or on another living thing
A chemical which kills bacteria and fungi but not viruses
Organisms which feed on the dead remains of living things
The use of living things to make a product
A term used to describe things which can only be seen by a microscope
Composed of only one cell
Microorganisms are found here
Free from microorganisms
A condition needed for the growth of microbes
A substance which contains food needed for the growth of microbes
How bacteria reproduce
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease
Pathogen that lives in blood
Bacteria that requires oxygen for survival
Bacteria that live without oxygen
Small microbes that pass through most filters
Microbes that grow on other organisms
Animal pathogen, parasites
The way microorganisms enter the body
Number of portals of entry for microorganisms
Spread of disease by contact with pathogen
Confined to one area of the body
Spread through the body
Usual amount of specific disease in a community
Excess of normal occurrences of a specific disease
Increase in normal number of cases of specific disease in a defined geographic area
Epidemic spread over several countries
Recently appearing infectious diseases in a population
Ingested or injected substances that have ability to inhibit growth or destroy pathogens
Chemical agents that treat disease
Biologic or chemical agents that create immunity
Absence or control of microorganisms
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Bacteriostatic agents used on skin
Bacteriostatic agents used on inanimate objects
Process of destroying all living organisms
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Organism that lives at the expense of another
Encapsulated bacteria in an inative state
a medicine that can destroy bacteria
microscopic living organisms
ability to spread from one individual or organism to another, directly or indirectly
a sudden increase in the total number of cases of a specific infectious disease
th brance of medicine that deals with diseases and human health
cleanliness practices that help individuals to maintain their health and prevent disease
the reproduction and growth of a disease-causing organism
to change in form or nature
situations then multiple outbreaks of the same infectious disease are occurring in different parts of the worlds
a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that is capable of causing disease
a genetic variant of a specific microorganism
a strain of bacteria that has become resistant to antibiotics
an antibacterial and antifungal agent that can be found in a variety of products like soap, detergent and toothpaste
the process of becoming more like a city
a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans
What is the abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Administration?
What sheet is required for chemical manufacturers and importers assess and communicate the potential hazards associated with their products?
The _______ registers all types of disinfectants sold and used in the United States.
_________ are one-celled microorganisms that have both plant and animal characteristics.
There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria that fall into two primary types: ___________ and nonpathogenic?
Most bacteria are _______________; in other words, they are harmless organisms that may perform useful functions.
___________ are harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body.
_______________ are pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.
____________ are short, rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.
When they reach their largest size, they divide into two new cells. This division is called _______ ___________.
___________ is a condition by which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection by showing redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
A ________ _________, such as a pimple or abscess, is confined to a particular part of the body and appears as a lesion containing pus.
What organism can clients bring into the salon where it can infect others? The bacteria can be carried by clients who are unaware they are harboring a dangerous pathogen.
Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome is caused by the ____ virus.
What is a submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in the cells of a biological organism?
Some of the viruses that plague humans are measles, mumps, chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, hepatitis, polio, _________, and HIV (which causes AIDS).
__________ are colonies of microorganisms that adhere to environmental surfaces, as well as the human body.
The HIV virus is spread mainly through the sharing of _________ by IV drug users and by unprotected sexual contact.
What is a single-cell organism that grows in irregular masses that include molds, mildews, and yeasts?
What are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter in or in another organism, while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism?
__________ is a contagious skin disease and is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin.
_________ is the ability of the body to destroy, resist, and recognize infection.
_________ ___________ is immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation, or through exposure to natural allergens such as pollen, cat dander, and ragweed.
What is the process by which all microbial life is destoyed?
What is the process that eliminates most, but not necessarily all, microorganisms on nonporous surfaces?
Disinfectants must have ________ claims on the label.
Properly cleaned implements and tools, free from all visible debris, must be completely ___________ in disinfectant solution.
All disinfectants are inactivated in the presence of many substances. It is _________ to use soap or a detergent first to thoroughly clean the equipment and remove all debris. Never mix detergents with disinfectants and always use in a well-ventilated area.
Quaternary ammonium compounds are also known as _______.
___________ disinfectants, known as tuberculoidal, are a form of formaldehyde.
Household bleach, a 5.25% sodium ___________, is an effective disinfectant and has used extensively as a disinfectant in the salon for large surfaces.
Control method that destroys pathogens but not usually kill spores
Process that results in total destruction of all microorganisms
Branch of medicine that deals with possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
Tiny organisms that can cause an infection: invade the body
use to prevent cross-contamination between patients and caregivers
safe and effective practice to prevent infections and germs spreading
shots, vaccinations that are essential to protect you against viruses
precautions or a set of standards used to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents
a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease
sudden or violent start of something such as a disease
a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease
to prevent something dangerous or unpleasant from happening
to avoid the manifestation of a disease
materials provided and analyzed and interpreted to evaluate public health practice
to administer material to stimulate and stop the spread of viruses
reproduces inside the cell of a living host
very safe and fast acting disinfectants
what is MSDS
One-celled microorganisms that has both plant and animal characteristics. Some are harmful some are harmless
Chemical products approved by EPA design to destroy most bacteria (excluding spores), fungi, and viruses on surfaces
Spherical bacteria that grows in pairs and causes diseases such as pneumonia
The division of bacteria cells into two new cells called daughter cells
The ability to produce an effect
The invasion of body tissues by disease- causing pathogens
Are the methods use to eliminate or reduce transmission of infectious organisms
A fluid created by infection
Harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body
Harmless microorganisms that may preform useful functions and are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause harm
Chemical process for reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level
Capable of destroying viruses
a ringworm fungus of the foot
The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores
Pus-forming bacteria that grows in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses,pustules,and boils.
Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that causes diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease
Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and poisoning
Any organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size
made or constructed of a material that has pores or an openings. Porous items are absorbent
Caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection
Capable of destroying bacteria
The presence, or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residue such as dust, hair and skin
The removal of blood and all other potentially infectious materials on an item's surfaces, and the removal of visible debris or residue such as dust,hair and skin