A substance, also called an antigen, capable of provoking an immune response
Molecules in the blood or secretory fluids that tag, destroy or neutralize bacteria, viruses or other harmful toxins
A substance that, when introduced into the body, is capable of inducing the production of a specific antibody
Cellular suicide, also known as programmed cell death
Usually used in AIDS literature to describe a person who has a positive reaction to one of several tests for HIV antibodies, but who shows no clinical symptoms of the disease.
Any infectious disease capable of being transmitted by casual contact from one person to another
A protein found in muscles and blood, and excreted by the kidneys in the urine.The level provides a measure of kidney function.
The period when an organism (i.e., a virus or a bacterium) is in the body and not producing any ill effects
All white blood cells
Any perceptible, subjective change in the body or its functions that indicates disease or phases of disease, as reported by the patient.
Development of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood as a result of infection with HIV
Any substance or process that destroys a virus or suppresses its ability to reproduce
A prolonged, lingering or recurring state of disease
How well a drug works
The presence of virus in the bloodstream
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue.
Clear fluid that is found in lymph vessels and produced from fluid surrounding cells.
Disease of lymph nodes (glands).
Dilation of small lymph vessels; often resulting from obstruction in large lymph vessels.
An example of lymphoma.
Inflammatory disease in which small nodules, or tubercles, form in lymph nodes and other organs.
X-ray views in the transverse plaine for the diagnosis of abnormalities in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland).
Acute infectious disease with enlargement of lymph nodes and increased numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes in the bloodstream.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Human immunodeficiency syndrome
Blood-forming organ in early life; later a storage organ for red blood cells and a source of lyphocytes.
The ______ gland also produces lymphocytes.
Lymph originates in the spaces around cells and travels in _____ _______, and xxxxx xxxxx to a large vein in the neck.
Lymph originates in the spaces around cells and travels in xxxxx xxxxxxx, and _____ _____ to a large vein in the neck.
Lymph nodes located in the neck area are called ________ lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes located in the groin are called ________ lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes located in the armpit are called ________ lymph nodes.
Precise blood test to detect antibodies to specific antigens, as in HIV infection.
the absence of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms
the use of a chemical agent or solution to destroy pathogens
the presence of an infectious agent on a body surface or clothing, bedding and surgical instruments
free from bacteria or other living microorganisms
a specified area such as within a tray that is considered to be free of microorganisms
a medical device that uses temperature and steam to sterilize surgical instruments
guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for reducing risk of transmission
personal protective equipment such as gloves and masks
the process of destroying all microorganisms and their pathogenic products
the process of destroying all bacteria
a substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms
a route in which a pathogen can enter a susceptible host
the conveyance of a disease from one person to another person or object
a pathogen that causes a disease such as virus, parasite or bacterium
an area for a pathogen to live and develop
acquired or occurring in a hospital
requires oxygen to live
can live and develop without oxygen
human immunodeficiency virus
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
hepatitis b virus
organisms invisible to the naked eye
a bacterium, virus or other microorganism that can cause disease
a microorganism that cannot cause disease
a disease that can transmitted
a route where a pathogen can leave its host
What is immunity achieved when the body makes antibodies against antigen?
Antibodies produced by plasma cells in response to antigenic stimulation?
This is a group of cells that come from a single cell; genetically identical.
It is the ability to resist and overcome injury by pathogens or antigenic substances.
What is a macromolecule that elicits an immune response by lymphocytes?
It is an enlarged monocyte that eats foreign material.
A short-acting immunity achieved when the person is given antibodies mad by another.
group of proteins in the blood that are concerned with phagocytosis
It is antigens that have been altered in order to produce active immunity without causing the disease.
What are substances that react with a specific antigen?
What is the eating of pathogens or cellular debris?
A foreign substance or antigen that stimulates an allergic reaction?
It is immunity against one’s own tissue.
The body’s response to infection or injury.
Lymphocytes that engage in antibody-mediated immunity.
It is a group of proteins in the blood that are concerned with phagocytosis.
They are substances produced by a virus-infected cell.
A type of lymphocyte that engages in cell-mediated immunity.
In the acronym “HIV,” what does the “H” stand for?
In the acronym “HIV,” what does the “I” stand for?
In the acronym “HIV,” what does the “V” stand for?
What type of defense cells does the HIV virus attach itself to?
What type of cells are CD4 helper cells?
The HIV virus can be spread through what?
The HIV virus can be spread by this type of device (HINT: MANY PEOPLE ARE AFRAID OF THEM
This advanced stage of HIV occurs when a person with HIV has an extremely low number of CD4 cells.
What virus destroys CD4 cells?
A symptom of HIV and AIDS can be a ___ which is persistent and won’t go away.
A symptom of HIV and AIDS can be heavy ____ at night, even if the room is ice cold.
A disease that someone is more susceptible to get when they have AIDS? (This disease affects the surface of the brain). *this is a challenging question*
People can prevent contracting HIV and later on AIDS by being what?
A symptom of HIV and AIDS that can be dramatic and is noticeable after just a few weeks of contracting the virus.
What is the defense system in the body that fights infections?
A substance the body cannot recognize, usually on living
A quick and general immune response you're born with
A highly specific attack on a antigen or pathogen by the creation of antibodies
A type of WBC that fights infection by swallowing pathogens
The movement of B cells to produce antibodies
A sexually transmitted disease
Swelling and redness at the site of infection
Chemical released by the body in response to an injury or allergen
Specific particles created by the immune system to destroy specific disease causing invaders
The action or process of recognizing foreign bodies
Any substance that causes an allergic reaction
A special version of auntie Jen that provides immunity against disease
A disease that can be spread by contact with infected people animals water or food
Physical contact touching and infected individual including sexual contact
A severe allergic reaction that can result in swelling breathing difficulty and sometimes does
The action or process of anti-bodies destroying pathogens
Third and order or level
Blood cells that fight infection and prevent the growth of cancer
Specialized white blood cells that fights diseases by talking antigens directly
Specialized White blood cells that fight diseases by activating the B-cells
The body's first line of defense against pathogens.
A cell that identifies pathogens and distinguishes different pathogens from each other.
The molecules that the immune system recongnizes as either part of the body or coming from outside the body.
Lymphocytes that produce proteins that help destroy pathogens.
The proteins produced by B Cells.
The body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease.
The process by which harmless antigens are purposefully introduced to a person's body to produce active immunity.
A chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming cells.
A disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance.
A disorder in which respiratory passages narrow significantly.
An imbalance or misuse of insulin in the body.
They are transmitted through blood or body fluid
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
PPE required for performing any first aid
The thickening of blood
A serious liver disease that can be prevented with a vaccine
An infection that attacks the liver but may have no symptoms
Another word for needles
Sharp metal objects that can transport disease
Blood, saliva, etc.
Waste that poses an environmental danger due to its biological risk
The action of stopping something from happening
An approach to infection control to treat all human blodd and body fluids as if they were known to be infectious
Help given to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available
Equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection
Instruments used to administer medication into veins
The state of being exposed to contact with something
AIDS, HIV, Hepatitis C, etc.
The action or state of making or being made impure by polluting or poisoning
A medicine/ drug or treatment effective against viruses is
Action or process of spreading something to another person is
An fatal disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV
The _________ ___________ protects your body from diseases and infections
The causative agent of an infectious disease
A fluid or fluid secretions of the body (ex: blood, semen, saliva)
Fluid that circulates throughout the body and carries oxygen
Keep something from happening
Virus that attacks the immune system
Medical treatment replaces an particular absent enzyme in patient
Result of fluid accumulation in the tissues
excess tissue fluid or clear water
engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in the lymph
Drains lymph from the majority of the body (except the right arm and right side of the head)
Lymphatic vessels that carry lymph into the lymph node
Lymphatic vessels that carry lymph out of the lymph node
small masses of lymphoid tissue around the pharynx
tubelike offshoot of the first part of the large intestine
Outer part of the node containing follicles
Soft blood rich organ that filters the blood
Specific resistance to a disease
Disease causing microorganisms
Phenomenon when cells follow a chemical gradient
Small, secretory proteins that defend cells
immunity provided by antibodies in the humors of the body
Chemicals secreted by WBC's and macrophages exposed to foreign cells or substances in the body
Substances capable of mobilizing our immune system and invoking an immune response
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances.
Chemical germicide formulated for use on skin; registered & regulated by the FDA
Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation (such as flu vaccinations) or through exposure to natural allergens such as pollen/cat dander/ragweed.
Showing no symptoms/signs of infection.
Short, rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria.
One-celled microorganisms that have both plant & animal characteristics. Some are harmful; some are harmless.
Harmless microorganisms that may perform useful functions & are safe to come in contact w/ since they do not cause disease/harm
An item that is made/constructed of a material that has no pores/openings & cannot absorb liquids
Illness resulting from conditions associated w/ employment, such as prolonged & repeated overexposure to certain products/ingredients
Bacteria capable of producing a protective coating that allows them to w/stand very harsh environments, & shed the coating when conditions become more favorable.
Capable of destroying bacteria
The division of bacteria cells into 2 new cells called daughter cells
Colonies of bacteria that adhere together & adhere to environmental surfaces
Disease-causing microorganisms carried in the body by blood/body fluids, such as hepatitis & HIV
chelating detergents; they break down stubborn films & remove the residue of pedicure products (scrubs/salts/masks)
athlete's foot; medical term for fungal infections of the feet; red, itchy rash of the skin on the bottom of the feet &/or in between the toes, usually found between the 4th & 5th toe.
Various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms (bacteria and viruses)
Disinfectants that kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
A disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted through coughing/sneezing
Capable of destroying viruses
A parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects & resides in cells of biological organisms
SP; precautions such as wearing personal protective equipment to prevent skin & mucous membranes where contact w/ a client's blood, body fluids, secretions (except sweat), excretions, non-intact skin, & mucous membranes is likely. Workers must assume that all blood & body fluids are potential sources of infection, regardless of the perceived risk.
Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.
A mechanical process (scrubbing) using soap & water/detergent & water to remove all visible dirt, debris, & many disease-causing germs. Removes invisible debris that interfere w/ disinfection. Cosmetologists are required to do before disinfecting
Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly (alone) or in groups. The 3 types are staphylococci, streptococci, & diplococci
communicable disease; disease that is spread from 1 person to another person. Some of the more contagious diseases are the common cold, ringworm, conjunctivitis (pinkeye), viral infections, &natural nail/toe & foot infections
The presence/reasonably anticipated presence, of blood/other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface/visible debris or residues (dust/hair/skin)
The removal of blood & all other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface, and the removal of visible debris/residue (dust, hair, & skin)
Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms &/or diagnostic tests. Federal regulations prohibit salon professionals from performing a diagnosis
Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs & cause diseases such as pneumonia
Transmission of blood/body fluids through touching (including shaking hands), kissing, coughing, sneezing, & talking
An abnormal condition of all/part of the body/its systems/organs, which makes the body incapable of carrying on normal function